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Old 06-14-2014, 06:01 AM   #421
R.B.
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Re: The traditional diet of Greece and cancer.

More general advice on the importance of the Omega 3:6 ratio



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3987049/


Helping women to good health: breast cancer, omega-3/omega-6 lipids, and related lifestyle factors
Michel de Lorgerilcorresponding author1 and Patricia Salen1
Author information ► Article notes ► Copyright and License information ►
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Abstract

In addition to genetic predisposition and sex hormone exposure, physical activity and a healthy diet play important roles in breast cancer (BC). Increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) associated with decreased omega-6 (n-6), resulting in a higher n-3/n-6 ratio compared with the western diet, are inversely associated with BC risk, as shown by Yang et al. in their meta-analysis in BMC Cancer. High consumption of polyphenols and organic foods increase the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in turn may decrease BC risk. Intake of high fiber foods and foods with low glycemic index decreases insulin resistance and diabetes risk, and in turn may decrease BC risk. The modernized Mediterranean diet is an effective strategy for combining these recommendations, and this dietary pattern reduces overall cancer risk and specifically BC risk. High-risk women should also eliminate environmental endocrine disruptors, including those from foods. Drugs that decrease the n-3/n-6 ratio or that are suspected of increasing BC or diabetes risk should be used with great caution by high-risk women and women wishing to decrease their BC risk.

Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/14/105/abstract.
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Old 06-14-2014, 06:05 AM   #422
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Re: The traditional diet of Greece and cancer.

And from the same authors the following heads up. I have not looked into statins in any detail so cannot meaningfully comment. There are suggestions that statins both increase and reduce cancer risk


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24903828

BMC Med. 2014 Jun 5;12(1):94. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-12-94.
Do statins increase and Mediterranean diet decrease the risk of breast cancer?
de Lorgeril M1, Salen P.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Physical exercise and healthy dietary habits are recommended to prevent breast cancer.
DISCUSSION:

Increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids associated with decreased omega-6 - resulting in higher omega-3 to omega-6 ratio compared with Western-type diet - is inversely associated with breast cancer risk. The modernized Mediterranean diet with high omega-3 to omega-6 ratio, high fiber and polyphenol intake, and consumption of low-glycemic index foods reduces overall cancer risk and specifically breast cancer risk. It has been suggested that consuming no more than one alcoholic drink per day, preferably wine, is preferable. Eliminating environmental contaminants, including endocrine disruptors, and favoring organic foods to increase polyphenol intake and the omega-3 to omega-6 ratios were also shown to be beneficial. Cholesterol-lowering statins may decrease antitumor defenses; are toxic for the mitochondria; decrease the omega-3 to omega-6 ratio; increase body mass index, insulin resistance and diabetic risk; and have been associated with an increased breast cancer risk.
SUMMARY:

Therefore, as well as making lifestyle changes to decrease breast cancer risk, we argue that physicians should carefully consider (and often avoid) therapies that may increase breast cancer or diabetes risk in high-risk women and women who wish to decrease their breast cancer risk

Last edited by R.B.; 06-15-2014 at 01:43 AM..
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Old 06-14-2014, 03:17 PM   #423
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Re: The traditional diet of Greece and cancer.

Hi RB,
great info as always. one of my best docs has been talking about this for 7 years. It's why I'm gluten and dairy free and work hard to balance the omegas. He's also very down on statins as they are so widely prescribed. Luckily not an issue for me.
Thanks for the info - gonna copy and re-post on my Facebook feed!
__________________
1996 cancer WTF?! 1.3 cm lumpectomy Er/Pr neg. Her2+ (20nodes NEGATIVE) did CMF + rads. NED.
2002 recurrence. Bilateral mastectomy w/TFL autologous recon. Then ACx2. Skin lymphatic rash. Taxotere w/Herceptin x4. Herceptin/Xeloda. Finally stops spreading.
2003 - Back to surgery, to remove skin mets. Not able to get clear margins. So schedule another surgery one week later when pathology can confirm margins.
‘03 latisimus dorsi flap to remove skin mets. CLEAN MARGINS. Continue single agent Herceptin thru 4/04. NED.
‘04 '05 & 06 tiny recurrences - scar line – cut out, cut out, cut out. NED each time.
1/2006 Rads again, to scar line. NED.
3/07 Heartbreaking news - mets! lungs.sternum. Try Tykerb/Xeloda. Tykerb/Carbo/Gemzar. Switch Oncs.
12/07 Herceptin.Tykerb. Markers go stable. New onc orders PET/ct & Brain MRI to re-stage me.
2/8/08 gamma knife 13mm stupid brain met.
3/08 Herceptin/tykerb/avastin/zometa.
3/09 brain NED. Lungs STABLE.
4/09 attack sternum (10 daysPHOTONS.5 days ELECTRONS)
9/09 MARKERS normal!
3/10 PET/CT=manubrium intensely metabolically active but stable. NEDhead.
Wash out 5/10 for tdm1 trial but then 6/10 CT STABLE, PET improving. Markers normal. Brain NED. Resume just Herceptin plus ZOMETA
Dec 2010 Brain NED, lungs/sternum stable. markers normal.
MAR 2011 stop Herceptin/allergy! Go back on Tykerb and switch to Xgeva.
May-Aug 2011 Tykerb Herceptin Xgeva. (premeds for Herceptin now)
Sept 2011 Tykerb, Herceptin, Zometa, Avastin. (switched back to Zometa, pet/ct bone mets seemed worse on Xgeva)
April 2012 sketchy drug trial in NYC. 6 weeks later I’m NED!
OCT 2012 PET/CT shows a bunch of freakin’ progression. Back to LA and Herceptin.avastin.zometa.
12/20/12 add in PERJETA!
March 2013 – 5 YEARS POST GAMMA ZAPPA continue HAPZ
APRIL 2013 - cancerversary 17 years from original diagnosis. 6 yrs stage 4. [/COLOR][/B]
"FAILED" PETscan on 4/2/13 (WTF)
May 2013: rePetted - improvement in lungs, left adrenal stable, right 6th rib inactive, (must be PERJETA avastin) sternum and L1 fruckin'worsen. Drop zometa. ADD Xgeva. Doc says get rads consultant for L1 and possible biopsy of L1. I say, no thanks, doc. Lets see what xgeva brings to the table first. It's summer.
June-August 2013HAPX Herceptin Avastin Perjeta xgeva.
Sept - now - on chemo hold for calming tummy we hope. Markers stable for 2 months.
Nov 2013 - Herceptin-Perjeta-Avastin-Xgeva (collageneous colitis, which explains tummy probs, added Entocort)
December '13 BRAIN MRI ned in da head.
Jan 2014: CONTINUING on HAPX…
FEB 2014 PetCT clinical “impression”: 1. newbie nodule - SUV 1.5 right apical nodule, mildly hypermetabolic “suggestive” of worsening neoplastic lesion. 2. moderate worsening of the sternum – SUV 5.6 from 3.8
3. increasing sclerosis & decreasing activity of L1 met “suggests” mild healing. (SUV 9.4 v 12.1 in May ‘13)
4. scattered lung nodules, up to 5mm in size = stable, no increased activity
5. other small scattered sclerotic lesions, one in right iliac and one in thoracic vertebral body similar in appearance to L1 without PET activity and not clearly pathologic
APRIL 2014 - NEWSFLASH:
6 YEARS POST GAMMA ZAPPA, 7 YEARS STAGE 4 and 18 YEARS FROM ORIGINAL DX! (CUCK FANCER)
October 2014: hold avastin, continue HPX
Feb 2015 Cancer you lost. NEDHEAD 7 years post gamma zap miracle, 8 years ST4, +19 yrs original diagnosis.
Continue Herceptin, PERJETA, xgeva. Adding back Avastin to see if lungs will go quiet
Nov 2015 pet/ct is mixed result. L1 SUV is worse. Continue Herceptin/avastin/xgeva. Might revisit Perjeta for L1. Meantime going for rads consult for L1 and due for MRI brain check (check please!).
December 2015 - brain stable. Continue Herceptin, Perjeta, Avastin and xgeva.
Jan 2016: 5 days, 20 grays, Rads to L1 and continue on HAPX. I’m trying to "save" TDM1 for next line. Hope the rads work to quiet L1. Sciatic pain extraordinaire :((
Markers drop post rads.
2/24/16 HAP plus X - markers are down: CA15‐3=46.9 CEA=12.3 CA 27.2=79 SCIATIC PAIN DEAL BREAKER.
3/23/16 Laminectomy w/coflex implant L4/5. NO MORE SCIATIC PAIN!!! Healing.
APRIL 2016 - 9 YEARS STAGE FOUR!
(20 years from original diagnosis) July 2016 - continue HAP plus Xgeva. Not NED but not DEaD.
DEC 2016 - PETCT: mets to sternum, lungs, L1 still about the same in size and PET activity. Markers not bad. Not making changes if I don't need to. Herceptin/Perjeta/Avastin/Xgeva
2017 I AM COMING FOR YOU!
April 2017 - TEN YEARS STAGE 4 - CUCK FANCER!
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Old 10-03-2014, 06:05 AM   #424
R.B.
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Re: The traditional diet of Greece and cancer.


If anybody is in the UK and interested I am speaking at a Royal Society of Medicine food section conference on hidden nutritional deficiencies in my new role as recently appointed Chair of the McCarrison Society, which is a venerable society with its own widely recognized Journal 'Nutrition and Health'.

I will be looking in whistle-stop fashion at deficiencies in nutrients particularly Iodine, Vitamin D, minerals, and imbalances in Omega 3 and 6 set within the context of the shoreline diet which arguably provided the conditions for out existence.

The Society has a long illustrious history, but is in need of a bit of revamping including a new web site.

I am hoping to make it a forum to bring together the Food Agricultural and Health sectors to the same table, which they never are, to try and bring focus on deficiencies such as Vitamin D, Iodine and secure the implementation of strategies to address them.

This is the link to the conference.

http://www.rsm.ac.uk/events/fhf01

Last edited by R.B.; 10-05-2014 at 03:58 AM..
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Old 10-20-2014, 11:35 AM   #425
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Re: The traditional diet of Greece and cancer.

GREAT to see the forum back

FREE STUDENT PLACES (UK accredited conference at the Royal Society of Medicine - food section)

There are a small number of free student (medical nutrition related) places at the above, but the offer closes tomorrow apparently. If interested please Pmail me

Availability depends on demand but I will be delighted to pass the application on.

The spaces have now gone - sorry about the previous typos - did not see them at the time

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Old 01-19-2015, 06:38 AM   #426
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Re: The traditional diet of Greece and cancer.

18:3n3 is linolenic acid the plant based 18 carbon found for example in flaxseed oil

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2033520/

FREE FULL TEXT available


Br J Cancer. 1994 Aug;70(2):330-4.
alpha-Linolenic acid content of adipose breast tissue: a host determinant of the risk of early metastasis in breast cancer.
Bougnoux P1, Koscielny S, Chajès V, Descamps P, Couet C, Calais G.
Author information
Abstract

The association between the levels of various fatty acids in adipose breast tissue and the emergence of visceral metastases was prospectively studied in a cohort of 121 patients with an initially localised breast cancer. Adipose breast tissue was obtained at the time of initial surgery, and its fatty acid content analysed by capillary gas chromatography. A low level of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) in adipose breast tissue was associated with positive axillary lymph node status and with the presence of vascular invasion, but not with tumour size or mitotic index. After an average 31 months of follow-up, 21 patients developed metastases. Large tumour size, high mitotic index, presence of vascular invasion and low level of 18:3n-3 were single factors significantly associated with an increased risk of metastasis. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to identify prognostic factors. Low 18:3n-3 level and large tumour size were the two factors predictive of metastases. These results suggest that host alpha-linolenic acid has a specific role in the metastatic process in vivo. Further understanding of the biology of this essential fatty acid of the n-3 series is needed in breast carcinoma.

Last edited by R.B.; 01-19-2015 at 06:48 AM..
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Old 01-19-2015, 06:47 AM   #427
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Re: The traditional diet of Greece and cancer.

Eur J Cancer. 2000 Feb;36(3):335-40.
Low alpha-linolenic acid content of adipose breast tissue is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.
Klein V1, Chajès V, Germain E, Schulgen G, Pinault M, Malvy D, Lefrancq T, Fignon A, Le Floch O, Lhuillery C, Bougnoux P.
Author information
Abstract

Data derived from experimental studies suggest that alpha-linolenic acid may have a protective effect in breast cancer. Observations obtained from epidemiological studies have not allowed conclusions to be drawn about a potential protective effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid on breast cancer, possibly because of methodological issues. This case-control study conducted in an homogeneous population from a central area in France was designed to explore the hypothesis that alpha-linolenic acid inhibits breast cancer, using fatty acid levels in adipose breast tissue as a biomarker of past qualitative dietary intake of fatty acids. Biopsies of adipose breast tissue at the time of diagnosis were obtained from 123 women with invasive non-metastatic breast carcinoma. 59 women with benign breast disease served as controls. Individual fatty acids were analysed by capillary gas chromatography. An unconditional logistic regression model was used to obtain odds ratio estimates whilst adjusting for age, menopausal status and body mass index (BMI). No association was found between fatty acids (saturates, monounsaturates, long-chain polyunsaturates n-6 or n-3) and the disease, except for alpha-linolenic acid which showed an inverse association with the risk of breast cancer. The relative risk of breast cancer for women in the highest quartile of adipose breast tissue alpha-linolenic acid level was 0.36 (95% confidence interval=0.12-1.02) compared with those in the lowest quartile (P trend=0.026), suggesting a protective effect of alpha-linolenic acid in the risk of breast cancer. The effects of dietary alpha-linolenic on the risk of breast cancer warrant further study.

Last edited by R.B.; 01-19-2015 at 06:49 AM..
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Old 08-22-2015, 02:30 AM   #428
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Re: The traditional diet of Greece and cancer.

Hi All

Role of dietary fatty acids in mammary gland development and breast cancer


Definitely worth a quick skin or full read if you have the time.

Some general and understandable background into the role of Omega 6 and 3 on the risk of breast cancer set in the context of long term intakes.

I am sorry there have not been as many posts lately I have been really busy on related issues.

Hopefully you to will get full free access.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096965/


Breast Cancer Res. 2010; 12(5): 211.
Published online 2010 Oct 26. doi: 10.1186/bcr2646
PMCID: PMC3096965
Role of dietary fatty acids in mammary gland development and breast cancer
Mira MacLennan and David WL Ma

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096965/

Last edited by R.B.; 08-22-2015 at 02:32 AM..
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Old 01-01-2016, 03:02 PM   #429
R.B.
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Re: The traditional diet of Greece and cancer.

"Sugar in western diets increases risk for breast cancer tumors and metastasis"

"The high amounts of dietary sugar in the typical Western diet may increase the risk of breast cancer and metastasis to the lungs, according to a study at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. "

http://medicalxpress.com/news/2016-0...st-cancer.html


What's this got to do with Omega 3 and 6 is probably your first thought.

A pathway increased by sugar is the expression of an enzyme called LOX12, which is an enzyme that is one of the key pathways by which plant based Omega 6 linoleic acid and the longer chain arachidonic acid are converted to downstream oxidized products that are highly bio-active including 12HETE, which has roles in controlling cell growth and invasion.

http://www.nature.com/bjc/journal/v1...c2011194a.html

The pathways are multiple and complex, and much remains to be determined, but several oxidized products of Omega 6s are associated with increased risks of cancer by multiple mechanisms.

So here it appears we have a cross amplification of relevant pathways by excess sugar and Omega 6s in the diet.

I see Lani has also posted the story. http://her2support.org/vbulletin/showthread.php?t=64352

This emphases how interlinked things are and that approaches need to be holistic.

Last edited by R.B.; 01-01-2016 at 03:10 PM..
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Old 06-05-2016, 02:22 PM   #430
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Re: The traditional diet of Greece and cancer.



An ACSO meeting presentation Mediterranean Diet v Other Diet - 3 years - return of cancer - 0 v 11

I will go and try and find the paper at some point - the details of the diets would be interesting.

News paper report

Yes a small study number but nonetheless thought provoking.



http://www.theguardian.com/society/2...fish-olive-oil

"Mediterranean diet may help stop breast cancer coming back, study says "

Abstract


"The study presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meeting in Chicago is a trial in Italy which compared the outcomes for 307 women who had been treated for early breast cancer. One group of 199 women were asked to eat a Mediterranean diet, involving four portions of vegetables, three pieces of fruit and one serving of grains a day, together with four or more servings of fish each week, some red and processed meat and plenty of olive oil. They were allowed up to one alcoholic drink a day.

The other group of 108 women were asked to eat their normal diet, but given advice on healthy food by a dietician.

The cancer researchers at Piacenza hospital, Italy, found that after three years, 11 women from the group eating a normal diet suffered a return of their breast cancer, while none of those eating a Mediterranean diet did."

Another papers perspective

http://www.independent.co.uk/life-st...-a7066056.html

Last edited by R.B.; 06-05-2016 at 02:29 PM..
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Old 08-21-2016, 10:08 AM   #431
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Re: The traditional diet of Greece and cancer.

Another paper adding support to the general contention that in the context of a western diet Omega 6s increase and Omega 3s decrease risk of breast cancer.

Positive tumors were found to have an association with a saturated fat, I have not seen the full paper but it occurs to given palmitic acid is also made in the body a plasma phospholipid content increase could in part or whole reflect wider dysbiosis in other lipid metabolic pathways.


http://www.foodconsumer.org/newsite/...808160946.html

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27146840
ABSTRACT

Cancer Causes Control. 2016 Jun;27(6):759-73. doi: 10.1007/s10552-016-0753-2. Epub 2016 May 4.
Plasma phospholipids fatty acids, dietary fatty acids, and breast cancer risk.
Bassett JK1, Hodge AM2, English DR2,3, MacInnis RJ2,3, Giles GG2,3,4.
Author information
Abstract
PURPOSE:

This study prospectively investigates associations between fatty acids assessed in plasma phospholipids (PPL) and diet, and breast cancer risk, including subgroups defined by hormone receptor status.
METHODS:

We performed a case-cohort analysis within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study using a random sample of 2,021 women and 470 breast cancer cases. At baseline, fatty acids were assessed in PPL and estimated from diet using a 121-item food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression.
RESULTS:

Breast cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL saturated fatty acids (SFA); HRQ5vsQ1 = 1.64 (95 % CI 1.17-2.30); p trend = 0.004. Positive associations were found for ER+ or PR+ tumors for %PPL SFA and palmitic acid and for ER-/PR- tumors for %PPL n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), TFA, TFA 16:1, and TFA 18:1n-7 (all p homogeneity <0.05). Breast cancer risk was inversely associated with dietary docosapentaenoic acid (DPA); HRQ5vsQ1 = 0.57 (95 % CI 0.40-0.82); p trend = 0.001 [with similar inverse associations observed for dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)] and positively associated with dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA. Inverse associations for ER-/PR- tumors were found for dietary dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) for older women (p homogeneity = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS:

Breast cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL SFA and the ratio of dietary n-6 to n-3 PUFA and inversely associated with dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA intake. Some associations between fatty acids and breast cancer varied by age and tumor phenotype defined by hormone receptor status. Increased intake of fish and other foods rich in long-chain n-3 PUFAs and reduced n-6 PUFA intake might reduce breast cancer risk.
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Old 08-21-2016, 10:29 AM   #432
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Re: The traditional diet of Greece and cancer.

The Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

Full PDF available for free

Complex as ever but the general direction of travel seems clear


www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/6/11/5184/pdf
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Old 09-26-2016, 02:37 AM   #433
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Re: The traditional diet of Greece and cancer.

Just a quick post for the moment; this is what I have been up too for a while; having the honor of being asked to write some 6 chapters in a edited Springer Publication. (A university type reference book)

The chapters argue the physiological importance of plant based Omega 3 linolenic acid ALA and Omega 6 linoleic acid LA in evolutionary terms as well as on physiology and energetics.

There is a limited amount of material on cancer; the chapters look more widely at the impact of and implications of imbalances, and oxidation of LA and ALA, in the context of a western nutrient depleted diet, on the occurrence of western non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular, obesity dementia's, and more widely behavioral change, trends to aggression etc, set within an evolutionary framework.

Some of the ideas are new and arguably potentially of significant importance. As above the University Books are expensive, but may be found in some libraries. (just to be clear I and other contributors received no payment or reward beyond a free copy and the honor of contributing).

This thread that has been running since 2005 was in part the start of the journey that lead to these chapters being written. so thank you all very much for your interest and support over the years.




http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783...53.About_eBook

http://link.springer.com/chapter/10....319-40458-5_27
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10....319-40458-5_28
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10....319-40458-5_29
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10....319-40458-5_30
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10....319-40458-5_31
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10....319-40458-5_32

Last edited by R.B.; 09-26-2016 at 02:40 AM..
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Old 11-04-2017, 02:04 PM   #434
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Re: The traditional diet of Greece and cancer.

As ever complicated stuff, but very simplistically 13HODE is an oxidised product of Omega 6 linoleic acid, (AKA 'FA oxygenases') and one of the most common oxidised lipids in plasma by a long way (exactly which is the most common differs between groups but they are all oxidized derivatives of linoleic acid - more research required as to why)

The preferred substrates of the 'LO' lipoxygenase enzymes are linolenic and linoleic (probably in that order - arguably an evolutionary consequence of their centrality in plant function), so simplistically if there is lots of linoleic acid (plant derived Omega 6) in the circulation, and not much linolenic acid (plant derived Omega 3) the the LO enzyme is going to work on oxidizing the linoleic acid including to 13HODE.

13HODE is found in oxidised vegetable oils along with other oxidised products, as well as being created by the activity of oxidizing enzyme activity, including that of LO, on ingested linoleic acid in the body (remember linoleic acid cannot be got from the diet and must be made in the body; it is an essential nutrient we must have enough to be healthy but arguably excess and more so where the Omega 3 linolenic acid is low, in the context of an overly processed, antioxidant depleted, western diet, is a significant factor in western diseases.)

The conclusion below needs to be mulled in the wider context of papers referred to in this thread, but adds more weight to the contention that excess Omega 6 in vegetable oils and other sources in the context of a nutrient depleted and nutrient damaged western diet is a factor in risk of cancer occurrence and progression.

The full free paper is accessible through the link below, and below is a abstract of the concluding paragraph at the end of the paper.


Fatty Acid Metabolites in Rapidly Proliferating Breast Cancer
Joseph T. O’Flaherty,1 Rhonda E. Wooten,2 Michael P. Samuel,2 Michael J. Thomas,2 Edward A. Levine,3 L. Douglas Case,4 Steven A. Akman,5 and Iris J. Edwards6,*
Anthony Peter Sampson, Editor

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3642080/

"In conclusion, the metabolites and pathophysiology behind the contributions of FA oxygenases to poor survival in breast cancer has been ill-defined. We find that among the metabolites of the oxygenases known or found here to stimulate breast cancer cell proliferation, 13-HODE stands alone in associating with rapidly proliferating, rapidly dividing, aggressive grade, and perhaps metastasizing breast cancer. Three oxygenases make 13-HODE but correlation studies suggest that its major producer in rapidly proliferating breast cancer is 15-LO-1. Since 15-LO-1 makes other metabolites that are not characterized for proliferative activity in breast cancer cells or measured here, 13-HODE’s contribution to proliferation, division, and metastasis may be complemented or even superseded by other products of 15-LO-1. This caveat also applies to the trends of PGE2 and D2 to be negatively associated with these parameters of aggressive disease. Nonetheless, our results indicate that 13-HODE is a marker for breast cancer severity and the 15-LO-1/13-HODE pathway is associated with a rapidly proliferating, dividing, and possibly metastasizing phenotype. We propose that the over expression of this pathway speeds breast cancer’s growth and spread. Over expression of the other oxygenase-metabolite pathways, including the CO/PGE2/D2 pathways, do not use this specific mechanism to worsen the disease."

Last edited by R.B.; 11-09-2017 at 04:13 AM..
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