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Old 07-02-2006, 10:05 AM   #21
R.B.
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Farmed fish omega three content and potential pollutants.

"Farmed salmon had greater levels of total lipid (average 16.6%) than wild salmon (average 6.4%). The n-3 to n-6 ratio was about 10 in wild salmon and 3-4 in farmed salmon."

IN WILD FISH omega three to six 10:1
IN FARMED FISH omega three to six 3-4:1

as independently reflected on the nutritional data site

http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-B00001-01c216F.html

http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-B00001-01c216g.html

http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-B00001-01c216F.html

So still a good source of omega three but less useful in balancing the threes and sixes.




http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q...=pubmed_docsum


1: Environ Sci Technol. 2005 Nov 15;39(22):8622-9. Related Articles, Links

Lipid composition and contaminants in farmed and wild salmon.

Hamilton MC, Hites RA, Schwager SJ, Foran JA, Knuth BA, Carpenter DO.

AXYS Analytical Services, Sidney, British Columbia, Canada, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, USA.

Levels of omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids and lipid-adjusted concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, toxaphene, and dieldrin were determined in 459 farmed Atlantic salmon, 135 wild Pacific salmon, and 144 supermarket farmed Atlantic salmon fillets purchased in 16 cities in North America and Europe. These were the same fish previously used for measurement of organohalogen contaminants. Farmed salmon had greater levels of total lipid (average 16.6%) than wild salmon (average 6.4%). The n-3 to n-6 ratio was about 10 in wild salmon and 3-4 in farmed salmon. The supermarket samples were similar to the farmed salmon from the same region. Lipid-adjusted contaminant levels were significantly higher in farmed Atlantic salmon than those in wild Pacific salmon (F = 7.27, P = 0.0089 for toxaphene; F = 15.39, P = 0.0002 for dioxin; F > or = 21.31, P < 0.0001 for dieldrin and PCBs, with df = (1.64) for all). Levels of total lipid were in the range of 30-40% in the fish oil/fish meal that is fed to farmed salmon. Salmon, especially farmed salmon, are a good source of healthy n-3 fatty acids, but they also contain high concentrations of organochlorine compounds such as PCBs, dioxins, and chlorinated pesticides. The presence of these contaminants may reduce the net health benefits derived from the consumption of farmed salmon, despite the presence of the high level of n-3 fatty acids in these fish.

PMID: 16323755 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Old 07-02-2006, 10:42 AM   #22
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Unbiased

RB,

My sincere appreciation for this unbiased distinction you provided.

An Alaskan Angel
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Old 07-02-2006, 12:36 PM   #23
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Rhonda ,

Thanks for the links on fatty acids.Could you please clarify why walnuts and soybeans are one of the best omega 3 sources on your first link and why soybean and walnut oil are referred to as omega 6 on the second link. It seems a little contradictory. What do you think?

Thanks!
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Old 07-02-2006, 03:13 PM   #24
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Walnuts and soy are identified as they have some omega three which is you will see from the chart below is unusual. { there are many more rarefied members of these fat families but they are not commonly discussed and it starts getting very complicated - the subs bench might be a description.}

Many of the trials on omega three and six have only got as far as omega three and take no account of omega six intake as a factor. Omega six is not yet on the wider radar.


Hence they will look at say the impact of walnuts on a diet - so the subject is getting more three which is an improvement BUT misses the real point that six is the key and omega three the essential partner. Fred Aistaire without Ginger Rogers. This also can lead to suggestions that three has no impact, which may in fact be simply because the relatively low additional intake is being swamped by the impact of excess omega six already in the diet.

It is the mother fat linolenic acid 18:3 n3 soy and walnut etc contain which if your body is working ok, pathways not hindered by medication, not compromised by excess six....can be made into the longer and more flexible and influential children DHA and EPA.

BUT walnuts soy etc do not provide DHA or EPA which is even harder to find high level food sources for - there is only basically fish and meat with offal and particular fish providing higher levels - which is why scavengers etc prize the offal as a food source and it is first choice on the carnivore menu, why
bears like salmon etc. I guess.

In general terms the animals have collected the mother fat it from green things and made it into the children, and collected it and the children fats from littler living things, and we are making use of that.

There are vegetarian options but they are limited, which I guess makes balancing the threes and sixes and low level sources of the mother fat greens etc even more important for some. There are some algae products as well.

http://www.benbest.com/health/fpercent.gif

http://www.benbest.com/health/fcontent.gif

This site is useful to look up particular foods
http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-B00001-01c20oc.html
http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-B00001-01c20ob.html
http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-B00001-01c20ob.html

So in the absence of any other omega three sources some walnut and soy is better than none. In a three six diet they would be included for variety and width of diet but factored into the omega six intake (and soy is a personal chioce given the issues that surround it for BC reasons).

AND they also have high levels of six, which as a nomad who fished so omega threes were no problem was good news too ( except soy is reported not to have been on the menu until the chinese found out how to cook it or ferment it to make it more digestible).

AND walnuts have lots of antioxidants and other things - soy products have lots of facets which are the subject of much ongoing discussion for BC sufferers good or bad is still under debate as noted above.

BUT whilst having more three than most things which is good news if you are short of sources of three, they are high sources of omega six which is an issue if you are trying to balance the threes and sixes.

HENCE the general observation if the three six is of interest to keep in mind that nut consumption is high six source in many instances, and nuts and seeds should be consumed in strict moderation. AGAIN CHECK ON NUTRITION DATA as some nuts like macademia and to a lesser extent cashew are much lower in Omega 6s, and some like sunflower are very high.

Levels of intake must be an individual choice but there are suggestion that low sensible is the most effective option keeping the three six balance in mind.

Flax perillia etc are some of the few high three vegetable seed source exceptions - but they too have some six but less six than three see above table.

I hope this helps.

Thanks for the comments. It is a pleasure to feel of some use hopefully, and questions / posts make me check and think about things from different perspective, and force a better understanding which is very helpful in my wanders.

RB

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Old 07-03-2006, 02:47 AM   #25
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Another reason and a familiar cast of players.

RB
http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/81/4/934

ABSTRACT

There are a plethora of biologically plausible pathways whereby PUFAs may regulate the factors involved in bone metabolism, such as prostaglandins, cytokines, insulin-like growth factor I, and calcium. Reviewers have suggested that one or a combination of these factors may have an effect on bone (5, 6, 13, 23). For example, PGE2, the major prostaglandin involved in bone metabolism, is synthesized from n6 fatty acids, whereas n3 fatty acids inhibit its production (1, 13). Normal or moderate concentrations of PGE2 support bone formation, whereas greater quantities promote bone resorption (5). Fatty acids are also involved in calcium metabolism. Higher n3 fatty acid intake enhances calcium absorption, decreases calcium loss, and increases bone calcium (13, 20,23). In addition, the inhibition of cytokine production has been implicated as a potential mechanism of the favorable effects of fatty acids on bone, with higher intakes of n3 fatty acids inhibiting the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6, interleukin 1, and tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (24, 25). Kettler (6) suggested that bone loss is mediated by cytokines, and n3 fatty acid supplementation in animals and humans reduces cytokine synthesis and increases calcium absorption.

In the present study, there was a significant interaction between hormone use and the ratio of dietary n6 to n3 fatty acids on BMD at the hip and spine. Fatty acids could potentiate the effect of HT on bone through increasing calcium absorption (26). A study in ovariectomized rats showed that estrogen plus a combination of n6 and n3 fatty acids increases bone formation and decreases bone resorption, whereas estrogen alone only increases bone formation (27).

To our knowledge, this is the first large epidemiologic investigation of the association between PUFAs and BMD in older, community-dwelling white men and women who had a wide range of dietary n6 and n3 fatty acid intake. The latest longitudinal study by Macdonald et al (11) investigated the association between total PUFAs and bone in women only and did not differentiate between various types of PUFAs (eg, n3 versus n6). Previous experimental studies had limited ability to assess a range of fatty acid intakes because of study design and small sample sizes.




http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q...&dopt=Abstract

1: Altern Med Rev. 2001 Feb;6(1):61-77. Related Articles, Links
Click here to read
Can manipulation of the ratios of essential fatty acids slow the rapid rate of postmenopausal bone loss?

Kettler DB.

Sky Park Wellness Center, Irvine, CA 92614, USA dr.debra@home.com

The rapid rate of postmenopausal bone loss is mediated by the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Dietary supplementation with fish oil, flaxseeds, and flaxseed oil in animals and healthy humans significantly reduces cytokine production while concomitantly increasing calcium absorption, bone calcium, and bone density. Possibilities may exist for the therapeutic use of the omega-3 fatty acids, as supplements or in the diet, to blunt the increase of the inflammatory bone resorbing cytokines produced in the early postmenopausal years, in order to slow the rapid rate of postmenopausal bone loss. Evidence also points to the possible benefit of gamma-linolenic acid in preserving bone density.

Publication Types:

* Review


PMID: 11207457 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Old 07-03-2006, 03:19 AM   #26
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Looking at the link between BC and bone issues

http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/full/19/4/478S

ABSTRACT

Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Bone Biology
Bruce A. Watkins, PhD, FACN and Mark F. Seifert, PhD

Purdue University, Department of Food Science, Lipid Chemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, West Lafayette, Indiana, and Department of Anatomy, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana

Address reprint requests to: Dr. B.A. Watkins, Department of Food Science, Lipid Chemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN, 47907. E-mail: watkins@foodsci.purdue.edu.


Osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and inflammatory joint disease afflict millions of people worldwide. Inflammatory cytokines inhibit chondrocyte proliferation and induce cartilage degradation for which part of the response is mediated by PGE2. Excess production of PGE2 is linked to osteoporosis and arthritis and is associated with bone and proteoglycan loss. PGE2 also influences the IGF-I/IGFBP axis to facilitate bone and cartilage formation. Recent investigations with growing rats given butter fat and supplements of CLA demonstrated an increased rate of bone formation and reduced ex vivo bone PGE2 production, respectively...............




Anti-inflammatory diets, including nutraceutical n-3 fatty acids, are associated with decreased pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (secondary osteoporosis), reduced inflammatory diseases [6668] and lowered cancer risk [69]. The common link between these diseases resides in the regulation/expression of COX-2. For example, multiple lines of evidence indicate that up-regulation of COX-2 contributes to tumorigenesis and inflammation, providing tissue levels of prostanoid precursors that influence formation of the pro-inflammatory PGE2. In addition, chronic aspirin users (COX inhibitor) have reduced incidence of colorectal cancer. Both COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors suppress experimental mouse skin carcinogenesis, and permanent overactivation of arachidonic acid metabolism appears to be a driving force for tumor development [70]. Moreover, metastasis of cancer to bone is a frequent outcome of breast (about two-thirds of patients with metastatic breast cancer have bone involvement) and prostate malignancies. The metastasis is often associated with significant morbidity (severe bone pain and pathologic fractures) due to osteolysis, and metastatic target bone is continually being remodeled under the influence of factors produced locally and systemically [71].

Interestingly, recent investigations suggest that both COX-2 induction and an increase in the supply of arachidonic acid are needed to greatly increase prostanoid production [72]. Supplying arachidonic acid appears to increase prostanoids to reduce the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including NS-398 a specific COX-2 inhibitor. Therefore, in our view, n-3 fatty acids and CLA isomers may act as potent anticancer nutrients because they not only directly/indirectly affect the activity and expression of COX-2, but may also reduce the supply of arachidonic acid to diminish prostanoid biosynthesis. In any case, one mode of action for CLA appears to be anti-inflammatory with respect to reducing PGE2 production.

The data presented in this review describe consistent and reproducible effects of CLA isomers on decreasing ex vivo PGE2 production in bone organ cultures [33,34] and in various cell culture systems [51]. The potent beneficial anticancer effect of CLA is likely linked, in part, to down-regulation of COX-2 activity. Future investigations on CLA should evaluate isomeric effects on COX-1 and COX-2, for which over-expression of the latter is associated with carcinogenesis and inflammation. This research would lead to 1) important discoveries for bone modeling and remodeling, 2) development of delivery systems in designed/functional foods and 3) opportunities to identify a synergism between nutraceuticals and drug therapies to reduce cancer risk and control inflammatory bone/joint disease.
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Old 07-03-2006, 03:55 AM   #27
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Fatty acid synthase an important factor in aggressive cancers

Mr Menendez and Ruth Lupu are frequent authors on the subjects of fats and BC and have a particular expertise in the field.

This seems to be saying that the gene involved in the synthesis of fats by the body is key to aggressive cancers, and is suggesting that there should be a recognition that it relates to the body's metabolism (of which diet is an important factor in this case fats by implication of the FAS pathways my interpretation based on their previous studies).

Not the easiest to read but for me a "public" statement of some significance suggesting implicitly that fats and body "metabolism" have a significant role in aggressive cancers.

RB




http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q...=pubmed_DocSum

1: Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006 Jul;9(4):346-357.Click here to read Links

Oncogenic properties of the endogenous fatty acid metabolism: molecular pathology of fatty acid synthase in cancer cells.

* Menendez JA,
* Lupu R.

aFoundation of the Recerca Bio-Medical Institute of Girona Dr Josep Trueta, University Hospital of Girona, Dr Josep Trueta, Girona, Catalonia, Spain bDepartment of Medicine, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare Research Institute, Evanston, Illinois, USA cNorthwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA dRobert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review documents our rapidly changing perspectives on the function of fatty acid synthase-catalyzed endogenous fatty acid biogenesis in cancer biology. RECENT FINDINGS: Up-regulation of fatty acid synthase gene expression and fatty acid synthase biosynthetic activity are molecular events accompanying the pathogenesis and natural history of cancer disease. First, the increased fatty acid synthase gene expression in precursor, preinvasive and invasive cancer lesions appears to represent an indirect, early epiphenomenon, occurring in response to a microenvironment containing regions of poor oxygenation and high acidity due to, for example, lack of an adequate angiogenesis and/or nutritional supply. Second, aberrant transduction cascades driven by cancer-associated oncogenic changes subvert the downregulatory effects of circulating fatty acids. Third, fatty acid synthase-dependent endogenous fatty acid metabolism actively contributes to cancer evolution by specifically regulating the expression, activity and/or cellular localization of proteins closely related to malignant transformation and/or cancer progression. SUMMARY: Fatty acid synthase-catalyzed endogenous fatty acid metabolism appears to be an obligatory acquisition selecting a biologically aggressive sub-group of cancer cells capable of growth and survival upon stresses such as hypoxia, low pH and/or nutritional deprivation. Considering that an ever-growing body of evidence demonstrates that fatty acid synthase-driven signalling actively regulates key cancer-controlling networks, we may hereafter redefine fatty acid synthase as a metabolic oncogene in human cancer cells.

PMID: 16778562 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Old 07-03-2006, 04:49 AM   #28
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Thanks for the precious, valued, VAST information on FA RB and for the answer to my unregistered post above about walnuts being both omega 3 and 6 FA.
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Old 07-03-2006, 05:02 AM   #29
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Trans fats

The basis of many margarines and used in processed food to varying degrees.

Note potential inflammatory link.

RB


ABSTRACT

"Consumption of trans fatty acids (TFA) predicts higher risk of coronary heart disease, sudden death, and possibly diabetes mellitus. These associations are greater than would be predicted by effects of TFA on serum lipoproteins alone. Systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, acute coronary syndromes, sudden death, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and heart failure. Evidence from both observational and experimental studies indicates that TFA are pro-inflammatory. Limited evidence suggests that pro-inflammatory effects may be stronger for trans isomers of linoleic acid (trans-C18:2) and oleic acid (trans-C18:1),"

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q...=pubmed_DocSum

1: Atheroscler Suppl. 2006 May;7(2):29-32. Epub 2006 May 18.Click here to read Links

Trans fatty acids - Effects on systemic inflammation and endothelial function.

* Mozaffarian D.

The Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Consumption of trans fatty acids (TFA) predicts higher risk of coronary heart disease, sudden death, and possibly diabetes mellitus. These associations are greater than would be predicted by effects of TFA on serum lipoproteins alone. Systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, acute coronary syndromes, sudden death, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and heart failure. Evidence from both observational and experimental studies indicates that TFA are pro-inflammatory. Limited evidence suggests that pro-inflammatory effects may be stronger for trans isomers of linoleic acid (trans-C18:2) and oleic acid (trans-C18:1), rather than of palmitoleic acid (trans-C16:1), but further study of potential isomer-specific effects is needed. TFA also appear to induce endothelial dysfunction. The mechanisms underlying these effects are not well-established, but may involve TFA incorporation into endothelial cell, monocyte/macrophage, or adipocyte cell membranes (affecting membrane signaling pathway relating to inflammation) or ligand-dependent effects on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) or retinoid X receptor (RXR) pathways. Activation of inflammatory responses and endothelial dysfunction may represent important mediating pathways between TFA consumption and risk of coronary heart disease, sudden death, and diabetes. Further study is indicated to define these effects of TFA and the implications of such effects for cardiovascular health.

PMID: 16713393 [PubMed - in process]

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Old 07-03-2006, 05:26 AM   #30
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The old standard, BUTTER may be better...

Recent investigations with growing rats given butter fat and supplements of CLA demonstrated an increased rate of bone formation and reduced ex vivo bone PGE2 production, respectively...............This taken with your above post on margarines certainly promotes butter over margarine and the trans fa. Of course, lets not forget to balance butter with the omega 3s and do butter in moderation.

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Old 07-03-2006, 12:04 PM   #31
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Thumbs up Get fish oil from the source

Living in the glorious great Northwest, we are blessed to have an abundance of healthy fresh fish. Much comes from Alaskan waters.

With a diabetic husband, fresh fish is a menu staple. We spend the extra money on the lovely fish and thoroughly enjoy our dinner meals. Had some fresh Ling Cod last night after the baseball game.

Now that the "cat is out" about the farmed salmon not having the right levels of the omega 3, as these fish do not develop the muscle tissue from swimming upstream, we have avoided this type. Also, the doubts I have about the feeding and living conditions of farmed fish, including shrimp from Asia, keep me away from these.

Since we eat fish more than once a week, I have not taken the fish oil separately. Not sure if I should anyway, but do get plenty of high quality olive oil, some grape seed and seasame oil in cooking.

Thanks a lot RB!
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Old 07-03-2006, 01:47 PM   #32
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FARMED FISH

They do have omega three just not in the same proportions, and a trial raised questions as to levels of certain chemicals etc. But if you cant get wild fish or too expensive probably better than no fish.


VEGETABLE SEED OILS AND NUT OILS(with very limited exception)

***************THEY ARE HIGH IN OMEGA SIX*****************

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q...=pubmed_DocSum

in 218 grams of oil GRAPESEED

Total omega-3 fats (est) 218 mg
Total omega-6 fats (est) 151,700 mg

IN 218 grams SESAME

http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-B00001-01c208F.html

Total omega-3 fats (est) 654 mg
Total omega-6 fats (est) 90040 mg

IN 216 grams OLIVE ( this will be a virgin oil in cheap olis as much as 50% is omega six)

http://www.nutritiondata.com/facts-B00001-01c208D.html


Total omega-3 fats (est) 1644 mg
Total omega-6 fats (est) 21090 mg


THIS IS THE POINT I AM TRYING TO MAKE

NOT A LOT OF MOST VEGETABLE AND SEED OILS IS A LOT OF OMEGA SIX.- and it is everywhere in process foods, olives in oil (sunflower etc)

You need to check on fish to as you may be surprised how the amounts of omega three differ.

MY GUESS is that you would need fish oil to balance your omega threes.

MY SUGGESTION if omega three six is now on your radar is spend a week actually checking how much omega six and three you are getting - no need to be too fussy but in broad terms, and then consider the dietary iimplications.

Sorry to shout but I have been down this path of diet discovery too - a year a ago being pleased with my self for consuming lots of high polyunsaturated veg oils, cutting down, and then realising with a shock when I checked how far out my three six balance was.

Two Brazil nuts balance a teaspoon of fish oil in very approximate terms.

Essentially in balancing the threes and sixes vegetable oils are very high on the NO list - with the exception of flax (no good for cooking) and olive virgin (and virgin olive still has about 10% omega six).

I hope this helps.

RB

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Old 07-04-2006, 10:57 AM   #33
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Whilst going back through Smart Fats ( latest version called Brain Building Nutrition) I noted the following comment in relation to fatty acids and brain tumour tissue.

I have not managed to find the original research.

" Indeed, intravenously administered fatty acids were more rapidly incorporated into the implanted tumour cells than the normal brain tissue." This was in respect of intralcerebrally implanted brain tissue.

The book suggests that brain tumours have higher omega six and lower omega three than healthy brain tissue.

The book asks the question could balancing the fats and oils prevent or treat brain tumours.

Very much on the edge and an area that is unresearched, but maybe a subject to discuss with advisers for those with brain tumours whose options are otherwise limited.

Trials referred in book to as to the composition of normal and tumorous brain tissue are copied below. I have been unable to find two.

RB

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q...+human+gliomas

1: Lipids. 1996 Dec;31(12):1283-8. Related Articles, Links

The fatty acid composition of human gliomas differs from that found in nonmalignant brain tissue.

Martin DD, Robbins ME, Spector AA, Wen BC, Hussey DH.

Department of Radiology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City 52242, USA.

To compare the fatty acid composition of tumor tissue from glioma patients with that of normal brain tissue, tissue samples were obtained from 13 glioma patients and from 3 nonmalignant patients. Following lipid extraction, total fatty acid composition was measured using gas-liquid chromatography. samples were further separated into phospholipids and neutral lipids. Representative samples were then separated into phospholipid classes by thin-layer chromatography and the fatty acid composition assayed. Levels of the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were significantly reduced (P = 0.029) in the glioma samples compared with normal brain samples; mean values were 4.8 +/- 2.9% and 9.2 +/- 1.0%, respectively. This reduction in glioma DHA content was also observed in terms of phospholipids (4.6 +/- 2.1% vs. 9.6 +/- 0.8%, P = 0.002). The phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipid classes were reduced in the glioma samples. Differences were also noted in the n-6 PUFA content between glioma and normal brain samples. The glioma content of the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than that observed in the control samples in terms of total lipids. Thus, the fatty acid composition of human gliomas differs from that found in nonmalignant brain tissue.

PMID: 8972462 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


1: Acta Physiol Hung. 1992;79(4):381-7. Related Articles, Links

Phospholipids and fatty acids in human brain tumors.

Ledwozyw A, Lutnicki K.

Department of Pathophysiology, Veterinary Faculty of Agricultural Academy, Lublin, Poland.

Phospholipid and fatty acid composition of human brain tumors is presented. The white matter contains a greater amount of phosphatidylinositol and a very low level of lysophosphoglycerides, as compared to the grey matter. Glioma and meningioma tumors contain a greater amount of phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, and lysophosphoglycerides, as compared to normal cortex tissue. A significant rise in oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acid content in tumor tissue was observed. It is suggested, that changes in lipid composition, may play a role in structural and functional membrane perturbations in neoplastic cells.

PMID: 1343190 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Old 07-05-2006, 04:21 AM   #34
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Reducing Bioavailable Sex Hormones through a Comprehensive Change in Diet: the Diet a

A Mediterranean type non prescriptive diet with flaxseed etc.

In essence "serum testosterone and estradiol levels were decreased"

"These results suggest that the multi factorial dietary intervention applied in this study may prevent breast cancer if continued in the long term."

Reduction in BC risk etc

An interesting read.

RB


"We observed significant and favorable changes in hormonal indicators of breast cancer risk in a group of postmenopausal women living in northern Italy, initially with high serum levels of testosterone, who followed an ad libitum diet of radically modified composition for 4.5 months. The main results were that serum sex hormone-binding globulin levels were increased and serum testosterone and estradiol levels were decreased. We also found decreased body weight, decreased insulinemic response to oral glucose, decreased fasting glucose, and decreased cholesterol: all of these changes were anticipated by the study hypothesis. Minor changes in the same direction were observed also among women in the control group, who were blind to the dietary strategy of the study but may have slightly changed their diet following publicly available cancer prevention guidelines."



Reducing Bioavailable Sex Hormones through a Comprehensive Change in Diet: the Diet and Androgens (DIANA) Randomized Trial1


http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/full/10/1/25

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Old 07-05-2006, 03:14 PM   #35
R.B.
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Trans fat versions of DHA have been found to be incorporated into brain retina etc. in a study in mice.

There is also suggestion with a caveat of more research required that trans fats may adversely impact on aspect of brain, eye function etc.

Trans fat occur as the result of heat treatment of fats etc.

Trans fats are found in some food products margarines etc. Which and to what extent and which fats - an argument for better labelling ?


"Synaptosomes, brain microvessels and retina were shown to contain the highest levels (about 0.5% of total fatty acids) of the trans isomer of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 delta 4c,7c,10c,13c,16c,19t). This compound was also observed in myelin and sciatic nerve, but to a lesser extent (0.1% of total fatty acids)."


"We conclude that long-term intake of small amounts of trans-isomers of alpha-linolenic acid could disturb visual function. However, further studies are required to determine the mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon."

Its those poor mice we have to thanks for this info again.


RB


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q...t_uids=7909911

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q...=pubmed_docsum

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Old 07-05-2006, 03:41 PM   #36
R.B.
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Trans fat in breast milk"remarkably similar to partially hydrogenated soybean and can

Thought provoking.

"The fatty acid composition, total trans content....human milk samples..........remarkably similar to that in partially hydrogenated soybean and canola oils, suggesting that partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are the major source of these trans fatty acids."

RB




http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q...t_uids=7760684

1: Lipids. 1995 Jan;30(1):15-21. Links

Trans fatty acid isomers in Canadian human milk.

* Chen ZY,
* Pelletier G,
* Hollywood R,
* Ratnayake WM.

Nutrition Research Division, Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

The fatty acid composition, total trans content (i.e., sum of all the fatty acids which may have one or more trans double bonds) and geometric and positional isomer distribution of unsaturated fatty acids of 198 human milk samples collected in 1992 from nine provinces of Canada were determined using a combination of capillary gas-liquid chromatography and silver nitrate thin-layer chromatography. The mean total trans fatty acid content was 7.19 +/- 3.03% of the total milk fatty acids and ranged from 0.10 to 17.15%. Twenty-five of the 198 samples contained more than 10% total trans fatty acids, and thirteen samples contained less than 4%. Total trans isomers of linoleic acid were 0.89% of the total milk fatty acids with 18:2 delta 9c,13t being the most prevalent isomer, followed by 18:2 delta 9c,12t and 18:2 delta 9t,12c. Using the total trans values in human milk determined in the present study, the intake of total trans fatty acids from various dietary sources by Canadian lactating women was estimated to be 10.6 +/- 3.7 g/person/d, and in some individuals, the intake could be as high as 20.3 g/d. The 18:1 trans isomer distribution differed from that of cow's milk fat but was remarkably similar to that in partially hydrogenated soybean and canola oils, suggesting that partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are the major source of these trans fatty acids.

PMID: 7760684 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Old 07-05-2006, 04:13 PM   #37
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A trans world journey. Fast food meal comparison - USA in highest group 36g

Hidden fats.

RB



"We defined a "high trans menu" as a large size serving of French fries and nuggets, 100g of microwave popcorn, and 100g of biscuits/wafers/cakes. "

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q...t_uids=7909911

1: Atheroscler Suppl. 2006 May;7(2):47-52. Epub 2006 May 19.Click here to read Links

A trans world journey.

* Stender S,
* Dyerberg J,
* Bysted A,
* Leth T,
* Astrup A.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Gentofte University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

A high intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (IP-TFA) is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), and a daily intake as low as possible is required to minimize health risks. To achieve this at the individual level in Denmark, legislation limited IP-TFA in foods to a maximum of 2% of fat content from 2004. We assessed the potential exposure of consumers to IP-TFA by analysing popular foods in Denmark, and in 25 other countries. Fifty-five servings of French fries and chicken nuggets, 87 packages of microwave popcorn, and 393 samples of biscuits/cakes/wafers with "partially hydrogenated vegetable fat" listed high on the food label were bought between November 2004 and February 2006. The content of IP-TFA was analysed by standardized methodology. We defined a "high trans menu" as a large size serving of French fries and nuggets, 100g of microwave popcorn, and 100g of biscuits/wafers/cakes. The amounts of IP-TFA in a "high trans menu" was 30g in 2001 in Denmark, but was reduced to less than 1g in 2005. By contrast, a "high trans menu" provided more than 20g in 17 out of 18 countries, with Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland, Bulgaria, and USA, ranking highest with 42, 40, 38, 37, and 36g, respectively. The legislation in Denmark has reduced the exposure of IP-TFA at the individual level without noticeable effect on availability, price, and quality of foods previously containing high amounts of IP-TFA. The findings of high concentrations of IP-TFA in popular foods outside Denmark suggest that millions of people inside and outside EU have intakes of IP-TFA that may increase their risk of CHD. The Danish experience demonstrates that this risk can be eliminated.

PMID: 16713385 [PubMed - in process]

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Old 07-05-2006, 04:19 PM   #38
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Trans fat in "high trans menu" reduced in Denmark from 30 g to <1 g

I have not checked this out but thought provoking.

Where there is a willl...?

RB




http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/q..._uids=16674878

1: Ugeskr Laeger. 2006 Apr 24;168(17):1654-7. Links

[High levels of industrially produced trans fatty acids in popular fast food - but not in Denmark--secondary publication]
[Article in Danish]

* Stender S,
* Dyerberg J,
* Bysted A,
* Leth T,
* Astrup AV.

Amtssygehuset i Gentofte, Klinisk-biokemisk Afdeling, Hellerup. stst@gentoftehosp.kbhamt.dk

An intake of trans-fatty acids of 5 grams per day is associated with an increase of 25% in the risk of ischemic heart disease. In 2004 Denmark, as the first country in the world, introduced a limitation on the content of industrially produced trans-fatty acids in foods. The amount in a "high-trans menu" consisting of popular foods was, from 2001 to 2005, reduced in Denmark from 30 g to <1 g. The amount in the same menu bought in countries within and outside the European Union is 20-40 g. During a period of just a few years, Denmark has thus eliminated a risk factor for ischemic heart disease without noticeable side effects for consumers. This risk factor is, however, still present in many other countries.

PMID: 16674878 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Old 07-06-2006, 12:20 PM   #39
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>>I take one fish oil capsule each day. Should they be stored in the refrigerator?
Barbara H.<<

Barbara - YES. Keep you fish capsules in the fridge. They cold keeps them from repeating on you and giving you that fishy taste later on.
Maryann
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Old 07-06-2006, 12:32 PM   #40
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I am first generation Greek American. We fished for our dinner, grew our own vegies and fruits, cooked only with pure olive oil, garlic and beans were a mainstay. I never ate fast food until I was about 15. Frozen and canned foods were somewhat of a treat for me (weird but true). R.B. - Do you think the busy years in between 15 and now are what nearly killed me??? I don't blame anyone for what I am going through (except my ex husband - lol). I believe in supplements and eating right. I started with a good foundation and have always cooked healthy meals...the desserts are my downfall though. My ex eats butter by the pound, smokes 2 packs of camels a day and drinks enough alcohol to kill a horse each day. He's very healthy. A friend from my old gym - best body you ever saw, young, eats like a professional body builder..died from ovarian cancer. She died fairly quickly. I just have to wonder how much is just luck or lack of it.

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