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Old 10-27-2013, 04:56 AM   #41
R.B.
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

This a flouridealert video on fluoride and thyroid function, and as highlighted in the papers above there is a clear link between the risk of thyroid dysfunction and breast cancer.

http://fluoridealert.org/fan-tv/fluo...thyroid-gland/
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Old 10-27-2013, 10:30 AM   #42
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

Another and particularly powerful fluoridealert video; a heartrending plea from a pediatrician.

Iodine / fluoride problems have their largest effect in the young.

Fluoride is accumulated over time in bone and calcified tissue, and provides a background reserve, so even once fluoride intake is reduced there will continue to be releases from calcified tissue and bone.

As I keep stressing to the iodine blocking effects of fluoride in water we can add chlorination, perchlorate, nitrates, bromide, fluoride in tooth paste (a real issue if you do not rinse really well it appears), fluoride in foods . . .

However it is important to keep in mind that fluoride and iodine whilst of the same family have very different sizes and characteristic, so will overall have lots of effects in pathways that are not common. Very high levels of fluoride have been shown to affect a raft of important pathways including reducing energy production, oxidation stress, and affecting immune function. The question is at what intake level do these effects become significant; we do not know, and it is all very complicated because for example you cannot entirely separate the effects of fluoride excess from iodine deficiency.

http://fluoridealert.org/fan-tv/dr-whyte/

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Old 10-27-2013, 12:16 PM   #43
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

This Chinese paper compares bone metabolism in two groups with high fluoride intake from water. The water of one group was low in iodine and the other contained modest amounts of iodine.

The iodine moderated the effect of fluoride on bone re-absortion / deposition.


http://www.cmj.org/ch/reader/view_ab...start_page=675

and this paper links dental health to thyroid function

http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j...55123115,d.Yms

and concludes

"Understanding thyroid hormone metabolism is essential in understanding fluoride
toxicity. Further research, be it on dental or skeletal fluorosis, effects on IQ,
oxidative stress, etc., should focus on this matter with utmost urgency, since it is
here that all observed adverse effects can be explained, thereby leading to a new
toxicological assessment of “fluorosis”, and, most importantly, proper treatment
and prevention."




but (below) residents of Porto Santo whose water naturally used to contain high amounts of fluoride had high levels of fluorosis. Do they eat a lot of sardines; I do not know, but probably did eat more marine foods than the average, which raises questions as to the relationship between iodine and fluoride, and to what extent higher levels of fluoride can be mitigated by iodine,and how much iodine intake is needed.

https://iadr.confex.com/iadr/2007orl...ract_93262.htm

Last edited by R.B.; 10-27-2013 at 12:29 PM..
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Old 10-27-2013, 01:28 PM   #44
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

I have also included this in part in the summary as I think these papers are important.

The presence of selenium and other minerals in fish may explain why fish intake that is likely high in fluoride (eg whole fish such as sardines) is not generally associated with thyroid conditions etc.

The Chinese paper starkly demonstrates that higher iodine alone will not necessarily prevent the inhibition by excess or imbalance of fluoride of thyroid function and the induction of goiter or indeed fluorosis.


Importantly this http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j...55123115,d.Yms Chinese study of a population with both high fluoride 3mg per litre (approx) and relatively high iodine 1mg per liter (approx) in their water observed "In high iodine and high fluorine areas, the goiter and dental fluorosis rates of children aged from 8 to 12 were 29.8% and 72.98%.", which suggests that higher iodine alone may not mitigate high fluoride intake. It looks as if the picture is more complex and also involves mineral intake; likely all of the 'elements' (as in pieces of the nutritional jigsaw - no pun intended ) need to be in place to minimise the risk of fluorosis / wider iodine / thyroid dysfunction.

Does high fluoride intake in whole marine foods have the same effect is a question I raise, as we have always associated fish intake with healthy populations. Fish would also contain important minerals such as selenium and zinc.

Fluoride apparently actively binds with selenium which interestingly may be protective against the effects of fluoride. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20143719 Apparently it also bind with other minerals, so could part of the effect of fluoride be to inactivate minerals, which are often already in short supply in the western diet, but are provided in marine foods. This mechanism would in nutritional terms be a double edged sword;

- protection against excess fluoride by deactivation of fluoride by binding to minerals good.

- deactivation of important minerals that are already deficient in many diets bad.


An unreferenced comment here http://www.healthyshopping.com/OlaLoa/autism.asp by Richard A. Kunin, M.D. said interestingly


" Fluoride forms insoluble complexes with selenium. Since selenium is strongly electropositive, it combines with fluoride preferentially, with even greater avidity than calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, sodium, potassium. The total adult body content of selenium is less than 100 mg, so little as to be vulnerable to sodium fluoride intakes of 3 to 5 mg per day, which are usual in this country because of fluoridation and fluoridated toothpaste. Consider that vital trace minerals, such as selenium, chromium and molybdenum, are ingested on average only about 50 mcg per day. Fluoride intake is 100 times more and fluoride complexes are likely to inactivate these trace minerals by rendering them insoluble--even in the presence of calcium, magnesium, boron or aluminum salts, which also bind with fluoride. Sodium fluoride, the relatively soluble fluoride used in water fluoridation, preferentially binds to the trace minerals, selenium and chromium."


This paper refers to possible links between calcium and magnesium deficiences and populations at risk of fluorosis. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j...55123115,d.Yms

Last edited by R.B.; 10-28-2013 at 09:41 AM..
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Old 10-27-2013, 01:57 PM   #45
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

. . . And this made me howl with laughter at the irony of it . . . this paper recommends that goats with chronic fluorosis should receive mineral supplementation copper iron manganese and nickel . . . they did not look at selenium.

http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j...55123115,d.Yms

I found it ironic that I can find a paper on mineral deficiency and fluorosis in goats but not people, and in many hours of hunting for information have not seen anybody suggest the possible need for mineral supplementation in those with fluorosis !


But tary a moment the paper above references another Turkish paper looking at mineral deficiencies in humans and this is what it said - looks like we have more in common with goats than we would care to admit


http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j...55123115,d.Yms

In conclusion, our findings indicate that chronic fluorosis is associated with reduced levels of serum Cu, Zn, Mn, and Mg. However, more studies are needed to verify and clarify the relationship between serum mineral status and chronic fluorosis.

(that is copper zinc manganese and magnesium)

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Old 10-27-2013, 02:13 PM   #46
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

Flourine contamination from industrial sources may be a significant issue if this paper from the 1950s still holds. It contains a powerful image of a leg bone of a cow with fluorosis, which resembles a knobbly tree branch in texture.


PS if you have got this far without falling asleep; very well done


http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j...55123115,d.Yms

"The problem of fluorosis in farm animals in Britain
is not due to the high fluorine content of rock phosphate
deposits, volcanic soils, or water supplies, but
arises from the emission of fluorine containing gases
and dusts from industrial plants.
If the density of our
industrial areas is considered in relation to the relatively
small area of the whole country, it can be readily
understood that a great deal of agricultural land must
be adjacent to industrial works.
The chief sources of fluorine contamination of
grassland and crops are: (1) steel and metal works
when the method of production involves the use of
large amounts of fluorspar as a flux ; (2) brickworks,
where the source is usually the local clay, although coal
is sometimes a contributory factor; (3) production of
aluminium by the electrolytic reduction of alumina;
(4) glass, enamel, and colour works where fluorine
compounds are often added to facilitate melting and to
give the finished products certain properties ; (5) the
calcining of iron-stone where the sourtie is mainly the
fluorine-rich ore itself; (6) potteries and other ceramic
industries where the materials used in manufacture are
high in fluorine; (7) collieries, power stations and
other industries which consume large quantities of
pulverised low-grade coal with a high fluorine content.

It is generally accepted that the fluorine content
of most plants, with the exception of the roots, is
not readily affected by the amount of fluorine in the
soil. There seem to be a few exceptions to this, notably
the tea plant. and the camellia, which appear to
be fluorine collectors, but common fluorine values for uncontaminated animal foodstuffs lie between 1 and
10 p.p.m. on a dry matter basis. Excessively high
values’ up to 2000 p.p.m. have been reported (Green
1946) on herbage near sources of emission of fluorine
compounds. "


and a paper called The Emerging Medical and Geological Association from The American Clinical and Climatological Association http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1473139/ states


"The health problems caused by fluorine volatilized during domestic coal use are far more extensive than those caused by arsenic. More than 10 million people in Guizhou Province and surrounding areas suffer from various forms of fluorosis. Typical symptoms of fluorosis include mottling of tooth enamel (dental fluorosis) and various forms of skeletal fluorosis including osteosclerosis, limited movement of the joints, and outward manifestations such as knock-knees, bow legs, and spinal curvature. Fluorosis combined with nutritional deficiencies in children can result in severe bone deformation.

The etiology of fluorosis is similar to that of arseniasis in that the disease is derived from foods dried over coal-burning stoves. Adsorption of fluorine by corn dried over unvented ovens burning high ([greater than, closed by curve, equal, slanted]200 ppm) fluorine coal is the probable cause of the extensive dental and skeletal fluorosis in southwest China. The problem is compounded by the use of clay as a binder for making briquettes. The clay used is a high-fluorine (mean value of 903 ppm) residue formed by intense leaching of a limestone substrate."

In the west we do not have the same level of exposure but it is clear that coal could be a significant source of flourine emissions

Last edited by R.B.; 10-28-2013 at 04:10 AM..
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Old 10-27-2013, 02:56 PM   #47
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

Two further papers suggesting mineral deficiency as well as fluoride plays a part in fluorosis

http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJF...F200802013.htm

http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJF...W200204035.htm
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Old 10-27-2013, 03:08 PM   #48
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

And this paper http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j...55123115,d.Yms powerfully makes the point that water flouride levels of 1.4 and 1.6 mg/l can result in significant levels of fluorosis 62.96% and 76.49% respectively - they also noted the water was low in zinc and selenium - so maybe there is a cautionary tale here;

The determination of a safe fluoride intake should have regard to wider mineral intake

High fluoride levels may ? reduce mineral availability, which is particularly relevant in those who are already mineral deficient.


Given many in the west are mineral deficient in one or more minerals this may be of particular significance.

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Old 10-28-2013, 03:57 AM   #49
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

It occurred to me after writing the above post that I had previously seen a paper linking thyroid dysfunction / goitre with areas know to be low in selenium.

Logically this risk will be greater in areas of high flouride in water and food, the level of other goitrogens in the diet, on the basis that the fluoride may bind with some of the limited available selenium so exacerbating the deficiency.

Selenium is widely recognised as essential to thyroid function, and its absence leads to dysfunction.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12487769

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12487769

and

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jul-Aug;15(7):1027-31.
Iodine and selenium deficiency in school-children in an endemic goiter area in Turkey.
Aydin K, Kendirci M, Kurtoğlu S, Karaküçük EI, Kiriş A.
Source

Selcuk University Medical Faculty, Konya, Turkey. kursaday@hotmail.com
Abstract

Endemic goiter is one of the most important health problems in Turkey. However, there are not enough studies associated with iodine and selenium status. This study was carried out to establish the effects of iodine and selenium levels on thyroid gland size and thyroid functions in 73 healthy school-children, 7-12 years old (mean 9.56 +/- 1.77 years), 38 girls (52%) and 35 boys (48%), living in an endemic goiter area. Goiter was found in 32 of the children (43.8%) by palpation, and 56 of the children (76.7%) by ultrasonography. Mean serum T3 and TSH levels were in the upper limit of normal, and mean serum T4 levels were within the normal limits, but mean serum thyroglobulin levels were higher than the normal limits. Mean serum selenium level was 30.84 +/- 23.04 microg/l, and mean urinary iodine level was 3.91 +/- 3.77 microg/dl, appropriate for moderate iodine and selenium deficiency. Thyroid volumes of the children were negatively correlated with serum selenium levels, but there was no correlation with urinary iodine levels and thyroid hormones. In conclusion, school-children in this area had significant goiter problems, probably due to the iodine and selenium deficiencies.

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Old 10-29-2013, 10:02 AM   #50
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

Of the flouride we ingest a proportion is retained in the body mainly in the bones, and some in organs that calcify like arteries. If intake is significantly lowered some, a limited amount, of the deposited fouride will leave the body. Much as yet is unknown but it appears in general the amount of fluoride in bone increases throughout life.

This paper http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j...55123115,d.Yms used radioactive fluoride for a pet scan. It is very clear from the PET scan image in the paper where most of the fluoride ends up, the spine, and interestingly some is evidently taken up by the blood vessels.



The effects at flouride intakes in the particular background circumstances that lead to fluorosis of the bone are devastating as clearly evident from this video. http://fluoridealert.org/fan-tv/crippling-waters/

High fluoride in bones is associated with more brittle bones etc. What the effects of a lifetimes accumulation of fouride are in more 'normal' circumstances is much less clear.

It appears that fluoride intake from our youngest moments is in a sense 'for life', and it is probably only in the long term that we will have a better understanding of the effects of our increasing intake from a range of sources including water, and how other factors such as iodine and mineral intake effect fluoride metabolism .


Association of vascular fluoride uptake with vascular
calcification and coronary artery disease
Yuxin Lia, Gholam R. Berenjia, Wisam F. Shabaa, Bashir Taftia, Ella Yevdayeva
and Simin Dadparvarb

Conclusion sodium [18F]fluoride PET/CT might be
useful in the evaluation of the atherosclerotic process in
major arteries, including coronary arteries. An increased
fluoride uptake in coronary arteries may be associated with
an increased cardiovascular risk.

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Old 10-30-2013, 04:42 AM   #51
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

Anemia and iodine metabolism

It appears that iron deficiency will exacerbate the effect of low iodine.

Iron deficiency is also an issue in 'western' countries


http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5140a1.htm

Iron Deficiency --- United States, 1999--2000

Iron deficiency, the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide, has negative effects on work capacity and on motor and mental development in infants, children, and adolescents, and maternal iron deficiency anemia might cause low birthweight and preterm delivery (1--3). Although iron deficiency is more common in developing countries, a significant prevalence was observed in the United States during the early 1990s among certain populations, such as toddlers and females of childbearing age (4).


Persistence of goiter despite oral iodine supplementation in goitrous children with iron deficiency anemia in Côte d'Ivoire1,2,3

Michael Zimmermann,
Pierre Adou,
Toni Torresani,
Christophe Zeder, and
Richard Hurrell


http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/71/1/88.long

"The findings in this study suggest that iron deficiency anemia in children may limit the effectiveness of an iodine intervention program. If confirmed, this result will have broad public health implications for the control of IDDs. More than 2 billion people—mainly young women and children, most in developing countries—are iron deficient (44). Children and pregnant women are also highly vulnerable to iodine deficiency and are the main target groups for iodine-supplementation programs (1, 3). Of the 419 children screened in this study, nearly 1 in 5 had both goiter and iron deficiency anemia. If iron deficiency is a nutritional factor that influences the pathogenesis of IDDs, iron deficiency may have a greater effect on IDDs than do previously described goitrogens because of its high prevalence in vulnerable groups."
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Old 10-30-2013, 02:44 PM   #52
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

Iodine deficiency as a cause of brain damage is a fascinating editorial paper which may be of wider interest and has wider implications for the individual and society particularly in respect of extremely preterm infants.

"Identifying the appropriate indications for supplementation may alleviate individual pain and distress due to disability for several hundred extremely low birth-weight neonates each year in the US alone, and save society a pro-rated lifetime cost of nearly $US1 million per child." (see below) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17107219

Iodine deficiency as a cause of brain damage

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1741987/

Abstract
This editorial reviews the impact of iodine deficiency
(1) on thyroid function in pregnant women and
neonates and (2) on the neurointellectual development
of infants and children.
All degrees of iodine deficiency (mild: iodine
intake of 50–99 μg/day, moderate: 20–49 μg/day, and
severe: <20 μg/day) affect thyroid function of the
mother and the neonate as well as the mental development
of the child. The damage increases with the
degree of the deficiency, with overt endemic cretinism
as the severest consequence. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia
during early pregnancy is a key factor in
the development of the neurological damage in the
cretin. Selenium deficiency combined with iodine
deficiency partly prevents the neurological damage
but precipitates severe hypothyroidism in cretins.
Iodine deficiency results in a global loss of 10–15
IQ points at a population level and constitutes the
world’s greatest single cause of preventable brain
damage and mental retardation.

A large series of investigations conducted in areas with
moderate iodine deficiency have demonstrated the presence
of definite abnormalities in the psychoneuromotor
and intellectual development of children and adults who
are clinically euthyroid and who do not exhibit the other
signs and symptoms of endemic cretinism, that is, the most
severe form of brain damage caused by iodine deficiency.
The psychometric tests used to find evidence for these
abnormalities are various and include locally adapted
“culture free” intelligence tests. The findings include low
visual-motor performances, motor skill, perceptual and
neuromotor abilities, and low development quotients and
intellectual quotients
(IQ).11 12 20


The paper also make the points

Iodine is important to fetal development. Thyroxine is apparently found in fetal related fluid from the 6th week; the fetus does not start to make its own until the 24th week, (Is this logically a potential issue in extreme prematurity - is thyroxine provided to premature infants ? - It appears the issue is recognised but still under research. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17107219 http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01306227 ).

Thyroid volume increases in iodine deficient women in pregnancy.

Globally iodine deficiency is a huge issue.

Food based thiocyanates may aggravate iodine deficiency in pregnancy, with different consequences in different circumstances.

As previously discussed there are a number of other increasingly common place blockers of iodine metabolism which have been greatly increased by human action or activity including fluoride, nitrates, chlorination, many soy based foods, bromination, dioxins . . .



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Old 10-30-2013, 03:08 PM   #53
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

This is a well regarded extensive UK study . . .


http://www.thejournal.ie/iodine-defi...19382-May2013/


‘Children of the 90s’ research

Researchers used samples and data from Bristol-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), also known as ‘Children of the 90s’. This is a long-term project involved more than 14,000 pregnant women in 1991 and 1992, and the health and development of their children has been followed by scientists ever since.

Researchers measured the iodine concentration in urine samples taken in the first trimester from 1,040 pregnant women. Referring to World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines on recommended concentrations of iodine during pregnancy, they classified women who had an iodine-to-creatinine ratio [1] of less than 150 μg/g as being iodine deficient, and those with a ratio of 150 μg/g or more as iodine sufficient. Over two thirds (67 per cent) of the women fell into the category of “iodine deficient”.

The babies born underwent mental development assessments which involved measuring child IQ at age eight and reading ability at age nine. Adjusting the results for external factors likely to affect these scores, such as parental education and breast-feeding, the researchers found that children of women in the iodine-deficient group were “significantly” more likely to have low scores (lower quartile) of verbal IQ, reading accuracy, and reading comprehension. The research, published in the Lancet medical journal, found that the lower the mother’s concentration of iodine, the lower were the average scores for IQ and reading ability in the children.

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Old 10-30-2013, 03:27 PM   #54
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

The effect of thiocyanates may extend to blocking the incorporation of iodine / iodide into breast milk.

The reduction of iodine in dairy is also of relevance as diary foods are an important source of iodine.


Thiocyanate in Food and Iodine in Milk: From Domestic Animal Feeding to Improved Understanding of Cretinism

To cite this article:
Peter Laurberg, Stig Andersen, Nils Knudsen, Lars Ovesen, Susanne B. Nĝhr, and Inge Bülow Pedersen. Thyroid. October 2002, 12(10): 897-902. doi:10.1089/105072502761016520.


Transport of iodine in the mammary gland into breast milk plays a central role in various fields of prevention of thyroid diseases. First, a sufficient content of iodine in the mother's milk is necessary for normal brain development in the breastfed child. This is attained by expression during lactation in the mammary gland of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS), also responsible for iodine transport in the thyroid. Milk iodine content varies with the iodine intake of the mother, and urinary iodine excretion in groups of mothers seems to be a valuable indicator of the iodine status of their breastfed children. Second, iodine in dairy products provides a considerable part of iodine intake in many populations. Thiocyanate from rapeseed feeding of cows decreases milk iodine content, probably by competitive inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland. Alterations in feeding of dairy cows may alter the iodine content of consumer milk, and this may influence the risk of thyroid diseases in the population. Thiocyanate inhibition of iodine transport into milk may also be operative in humans with a high thiocyanate intake. This could further impair iodine status in breastfed children in low-iodine intake areas of the world. It can be speculated that a low-iodine content of mother's milk because of inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland may be one factor of importance for development of myxedematous cretinism.
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Old 10-31-2013, 02:25 PM   #55
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

This is a paper (2005) by Dr Flechas titled


Orthoiodosupplementation in a Primary Care Practice

http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j...55819444,d.bGE
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Old 10-31-2013, 02:50 PM   #56
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

Is iodine accumulated in fat tissue is a question I have wanted the answer to for a while. This is the first paper I have found that confirms iodine is accumulated in fatty muscle tissue (albeit in pigs).

Six months after an initial single dosage of 480mg dorsal fatty muscle tissue contained over 2 mg per kilo which was way more than the amount in liver skin or lean meat (fig 4).

The accumulation of iodine in fatty tissue for me raises the question if those who have significant fat tissue will require a higher iodine intake, because a greater proportion of any intake will be taken up by the fatty tissue. This is what is seen with vitamin D. The obese will have a lower level of vitamin D in the blood for the same intake compared to a slim person; as a result a greater number of obese people are vitamin D deficient.

In the pigs the measures of iodine such as concentration in urine, blood and thyroid were still higher after 6 months, which begs the question if the iodine is being released from the fat tissue to sustain higher iodine levels.

It also raises the issue of what role does iodine play in fat tissue; for example does it have antioxidant roles.

These are important questions but so far I have failed to find any research looking at these issues in humans.

The intramuscular delivery may have been a slightly more effective vehicle than oral delivery.


Iodine concentrations in porcine blood, urine, and tissues after
a single dose of iodised oil

http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j...55819444,d.Yms
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Old 10-31-2013, 03:13 PM   #57
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

This paper recognises it is important to bear in mind the additive effects of iodine blockers as they may well have cumulative effect especially where iodine intake is low.

As discussed to perchlorate, and thiocyantes (from brassica type foods) we can add chlorination, nitrates, some chlorine products, other foods blockers such as agents in soy . . .



Combined effects of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodine on thyroid function in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–08

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...13935113000091


Abstract

Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine intake can all decrease iodide intake into the thyroid gland. This can reduce thyroid hormone production since iodide is a key component of thyroid hormone. Previous research has suggested that each of these factors alone may decrease thyroid hormone levels, but effect sizes are small. We hypothesized that people who have all three factors at the same time have substantially lower thyroid hormone levels than people who do not, and the effect of this combined exposure is substantially larger than the effects seen in analyses focused on only one factor at a time. Using data from the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, subjects were categorized into exposure groups based on their urinary perchlorate, iodine, and thiocyanate concentrations, and mean serum thyroxine concentrations were compared between groups. Subjects with high perchlorate (n=1939) had thyroxine concentrations that were 5.0% lower (mean difference=0.40 μg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.14–0.65) than subjects with low perchlorate (n=2084). The individual effects of iodine and thiocyanate were even smaller. Subjects with high perchlorate, high thiocyanate, and low iodine combined (n=62) had thyroxine concentrations 12.9% lower (mean difference=1.07 μg/dl, 95% confidence interval=0.55–1.59) than subjects with low perchlorate, low thiocyanate, and adequate iodine (n=376). Potential confounders had little impact on results. Overall, these results suggest that concomitant exposure to perchlorate, thiocyanate, and low iodine markedly reduces thyroxine production. This highlights the potential importance of examining the combined effects of multiple agents when evaluating the toxicity of thyroid-disrupting agents.
Highlights

Recent data suggest that essentially everyone in the US is exposed to perchlorate. ► Perchlorate exposure may be associated with lower thyroid hormone levels. ► Some groups may be more susceptible to perchlorate than others.
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Old 11-01-2013, 02:33 PM   #58
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

A paper looking at development and intelligence in areas including of modest fluoride in water and low iodine.

There is no wider detail as to diet or mineral intake, so much we do not know in terms of potential relevance and comparability to Europe and America.

None the less the paper does indicate potential serious effects on development where fluoride intake is modest and iodine intake low, whcih in light of the figures above as to the iodine status of adolescent and pregnant females in the UK is scary in its possible implications.





http://www.slweb.org/IDD.html



Discussion

One hundred and four children with mental retardation were detected in all. Area A had 25%, area B 16%, and area C 8%. The significant differences in IQ among these regions suggests that fluoride can exacerbate central nervous lesions and somatic developmental disturbance caused by iodine deficiency. This may be in keeping with fluoride's known ability to cause degenerative changes in central nervous system cells and to inhibit the activities of many enzymes, including choline enzymes, causing disturbance of the nerve impulse (5). We found significant differences among the three areas, indicating that lack of iodine in children results in disturbance of the process of growth and ossification and that high fluoride intake can further disturb bone development (6,7). Also, the auditory threshold was significantly different among the three areas, with severe loss of hearing in high fluoride and low iodine areas. Severe iodine deficiency in early fetal life has adverse effects on the development and differentiation of the acoustic organ, and we suggest that high fluoride intake may also promote hearing loss. . . MORE

Summary

We studied a total of 769 schoolchildren of 7-14 years in three areas, characterized by intakes of (A) low iodine, high fluoride; (B) low iodine, normal fluoride; and (C) iodine supplemented, normal fluoride. Results for the following parameters for areas A, B, and C, respectively were: (a) average IQ: 71, 77, 96; (b) average auditory threshold (in dB): 24, 20, 16; (c) bone age retardation (%): 28, 13, 4; (d) thyroid 131I uptake (%): 60, 50, 24; and (e) serum TSH (mU/ml): 21, 11, 6. Statistically significant differences existed between these areas, suggesting that a low iodine intake coupled with high fluoride intake exacerbates the central nervous lesions and the somatic developmental disturbance of iodine deficiency. The detection rate of subclinical endemic cretinism in children with mental retardation was 69%, and the total attack rate of subclinical endemic cretinism 9%.

Last edited by R.B.; 11-01-2013 at 04:24 PM..
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Old 11-01-2013, 03:38 PM   #59
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

Iodine overload - how much is too much ?

Whilst there appears to be significant amount of material suggesting benefits in some from high iodine intake, possibly in those where there has been historic imbalance, or deficiency, and suggestions that some populations have a high intake, there are equally indications that high iodine intake can have adverse consequences.

Daily recommended intakes are in micro grams rather than milligrams. Is this enough given uncertainties as to the level of iodine blockers and competitors such as bromine in our diet. Clearly some think not, and sadly it appears that many are not even getting the minimum requirements in their diet, and that is before the potential blocking of iodine uptake may inhibit their usage of an already very low intake. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/minerals/iodine/

There is much we do not know, for example exactly how other dietary factors interact with iodine intake. The Japanese whatever their historic intake was got their intake from natural food based sources mainly seaweed which would also have been mineral rich and interestingly likely contained significant amounts of bromine (seaweed contains quite high levels of bromine generally).

Iodine contents of seaweeds vary considerably, and iodine is lost in processing and drying, which makes iodine intake through seaweed a bit of a lottery, and clearly if somebody has a lot of bromine in their system from artificially brominated foods then intuitively a food source potentially rich in bromide may not be ideal (although it is possible some of the bromine will also be lost in processing)

Bromine in foods is more of a problem in the US than UK due to brominated soft drinks and flour; but bromine may be used in other products viz the fumigation of dried foods such as nuts; nuts contain quite high amounts of bromine it appears. It seems potentially lots of foods are fumigated with bromine. Whilst there may be some restriction on fumigation with bromine in the west with foods being sourced all round the world and complex regulations I suspect sadly the reality is overall we do not know what our food contains.

I have no idea if the relatively high levels of bromine found in nut products is from the soil or fumigation, but would guess it is probably largely from fumigation in the county of origin.

Also as previously mentioned bromine/bromide may be used in the brewing industry. Does it reach the beer; I have not been able to find a definitive answer to the question.

http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5042e/x5042e08.htm "Almost invariably, nuts and shelled nuts are fumigated in the country of origin before export, often with methyl bromide. If more than one fumigation is required after importation, there may be danger of taint and a trial treatment should be made."

Methyl bromide may be particularly well absorbed because it is in an organic form (and differently ? metabolised) - oh dear that raises a whole heap of new questions - as ever things are rarely straight forward - it appears marine organisms produce it and some will end up in the atmosphere. Some plants including the brassicas produce it in small quantities. Large amounts can kill you and do kill customs officers opening containers. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bromomethane What effect does the sort of levels found in food have? I have no idea but clearly based on the forgoing a bromine iodine imbalance in the metabolic pathways is a potential health issue.

Back to iodine intake; a Japanese Radiological society paper suggest current intake of iodine was around 1mg with their parents consuming more, but exactly how much we do not know. Higher intakes may be problematic particularly for those with other dietary deficiencies including selenium and other minerals.

The paper below looked at a group of Peace Corp staff who had high iodine intake possibly 50mg a day or more for 32 months. The core conclusion is that those using iodination to decontaminate water need regular medical checks. Interestingly the paper does not recommend that sanitisation of water with iodine should not be used, only that regular checks should take place and particular care should be taken in pregnancy. It is a shame the information is not more comprehensive, and does not look at any longer term implications of high dose iodine intake if any.



Effects of Chronic Iodine Excess in a Cohort of Long-Term American Workers in West Africa

http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/87/12/5499.long

The body of the text contains the following comment; if it means this was the result of examination prior to iodine exposure it adds a further dimension to the results.

There was a high prevalence of goiter among Peace Corps volunteers in this study at baseline in both euthyroid and hypothyroid individuals. . .

Abstracts from text

As the arid climate in Niger results in the daily consumption of 5–9 liters water, the volunteers consumed at least 50 mg iodine daily, which is approximately 300 times the daily U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowance (2). Urinary iodine excretion in this iodine-enriched population ranged from 392–153,780 μg/liter (median, 5,048 μg/liter). Volunteers used the water purification devices described above for up to 32 months.

The findings in this study have significant public health implications. In 1998, an estimated 60,000 iodine resin devices and 300,000 bottles of iodine tablets were sold to U.S. civilians for water disinfection (24). In addition, iodine-based water purification systems are routinely used by the military, in international relief efforts, and by other government-sponsored programs. In this regard we have recently reported that excess iodine ingestion by American astronauts from water treated with iodine for purification in space resulted in a small transient rise in serum TSH values upon return to earth (25). Since 1998, the iodine has been removed from astronauts’ potable water by an anion exchange resin just before the water is consumed, and no rise in serum TSH values has been observed. It is probably inadvisable for pregnant women, individuals with a history or a strong family history of thyroid disease, especially autoimmune thyroid disease, or individuals residing in areas of endemic iodine deficiency to use iodine-based methods of water purification unless extremely careful monitoring of the iodine content is carried out. Any individual anticipating prolonged ingestion of excess amounts of iodine in medications or as a byproduct of a water purification system should see a physician for a baseline physical exam to exclude the presence of preexisting goiter and to measure thyroid function tests and serum thyroid antibody levels to rule out abnormalities. Repeat thyroid function tests should then be repeated at intervals until excess iodine ingestion is eliminated.

Last edited by R.B.; 11-01-2013 at 04:19 PM..
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Old 11-02-2013, 04:35 AM   #60
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Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo

This is an interesting paper on estimated Japanese iodine intake which ties in with another report I have seen.

"By combining information from dietary records, food surveys, urine iodine analysis (both spot and 24-hour samples) and seaweed iodine content, we estimate that the Japanese iodine intake--largely from seaweeds--averages 1,000-3,000 μg/day (1-3 mg/day)."
See below

The report also recognises that pre 1950 Japanese ate a lot more kelp (Kombu)
"elders ate up to four times more than those under the age of 29" so their intake figures could have been significantly higher.

It is also recognised in the paper that intakes of iodine will vary considerably on a day to day basis, which is reflected in urine output. So on some days Japanese may be consuming many grams of iodine. "Urine iodine levels can increase from 100 μg/L to 30,000 μg/L in a single day and return to 100 μg/L within a couple of days, depending on seaweed intake [39]. This is somewhat expected when varying amounts and types of seaweeds are consumed on a day-to-day basis."

An analysis of studies of iodine in urine incontrovertibly shows the Japanese have much higher iodine levels than we do in the west, the data in the paper shows at least historically they had a much lower level of many western medical conditions.

It is also clear from the report that a variety of dietary seaweeds are very much part of the Japanese life, and that the seaweeds in food vary in iodine content for a wide variety of reasons.

The full paper is free and the implications are thought provoking, both in terms of recommended western daily recommended intake, and the use of iodine at higher intakes as a medicine to correct historic imbalances.



"Japanese health statistics linked to high seaweed intake

The Japanese are considered one of the world's longest living people, with an extraordinarily low rate of certain types of cancer. A major dietary difference that sets Japan apart from other countries is high iodine intake, with seaweeds the most common source. Here are some astonishing Japanese health statistics, which are possibly related to their high seaweed consumption and iodine intake:

-Japanese average life expectancy (83 years) is five years longer than US average life expectancy (78 years) [41].

-In 1999 the age-adjusted breast cancer mortality rate was three times higher in the US than in Japan [42].

-Ten years after arriving in the US (in 1991), the breast cancer incidence rate of immigrants from Japan increased from 20 per 100,000 to 30 per 100,000 [43].

-In 2002 the age-adjusted rate of prostate cancer in Japan was 12.6 per 100,000, while the US rate was almost ten times as high [44].

-Heart related deaths in men and women aged 35-74 years are much higher in the US (1,415 per 100,000) as they are in Japan (897 per 100,000) [45].

-In 2004, infant deaths were over twice as high in the US (6.8 per 1,000) as they were in Japan (2.8 per 1,000) [46]."


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3204293/


Assessment of Japanese iodine intake based on seaweed consumption in Japan: A literature-based analysis

Abstract

Japanese iodine intake from edible seaweeds is amongst the highest in the world. Predicting the type and amount of seaweed the Japanese consume is difficult due to day-to-day meal variation and dietary differences between generations and regions. In addition, iodine content varies considerably between seaweed species, with cooking and/or processing having an influence on iodine content. Due to all these factors, researchers frequently overestimate, or underestimate, Japanese iodine intake from seaweeds, which results in misleading and potentially dangerous diet and supplementation recommendations for people aiming to achieve the same health benefits seen by the Japanese. By combining information from dietary records, food surveys, urine iodine analysis (both spot and 24-hour samples) and seaweed iodine content, we estimate that the Japanese iodine intake--largely from seaweeds--averages 1,000-3,000 μg/day (1-3 mg/day).

Last edited by R.B.; 11-02-2013 at 04:47 AM..
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