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Old 04-28-2011, 10:12 AM   #1
Rich66
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Aggressive Prostate Cancer: High Omega-3s in Blood Doubled the Risk, but High Trans–F

As a big fan of using methods to fight cancer that don't induce vomiting or remove toenails, and as a guy with PCa in his family..very confused by this:


http://www.cancernetwork.com/print/a...printable=true


NEWS & ANALYSIS
Aggressive Prostate Cancer: High Omega-3s in Blood Doubled the Risk, but High Trans–Fatty Acids Cut Risk in Half


By CancerNetwork Editors | April 27, 2011






An analysis of data from 3,400 men in the large nationwide Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial indicates that, contrary to what might be expected, men with the highest blood percentages of DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), an omega-3 fatty acid commonly found in fatty fish, had 2.5 times the risk of developing aggressive, high-grade prostate cancer, compared with men who had the lowest levels.

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is a systematic name. Docosa refers to the 22 carbon atoms in the chain and hexa refers to 6 double bonds.
In another surprising finding, the investigators discovered that men with the highest blood ratios of trans–fatty acids, commonly found in processed foods containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, actually had a 50% reduction in the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.
Neither omega 3s nor trans–fatty acids were associated with a risk of low-grade prostate cancer, and omega-6 fatty acids, found in most vegetable oils and associated with inflammation and heart disease, were not associated with prostate cancer risk, the researchers reported.
The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and Subset Analysis
The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, a randomized clinical trial conducted across the US that tested efficacy of the androgen inhibitor finasteride(Drug information on finasteride) in preventing prostate cancer, involved nearly 19,000 men 55 years of age and older. Data in the analysis reported in the American Journal of Epidemiology by Brasky et al are from a subset of about 3,400 of the participants in the larger trial, half of whom developed prostate cancer (confirmed by biopsy) during the course of the study and half of whom did not.
The study authors are from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC), The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, and the National Cancer Institute, which funded the research. The findings were published online on April 25 in the American Journal of Epidemiology.
Given the association between chronic inflammation and increased cancer risk, together with the cardiac benefits and anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 fatty acids and the possible inflammation-promoting effects of other fats, such as the omega-6 fats in vegetable oil and trans-fats found in fast foods, the findings seem to be counterintuitive. “Specifically, we thought that omega-3 fatty acids would reduce and omega-6 and trans–fatty acids would increase prostate cancer risk,” commented lead author Theodore M. Brasky, PhD, a postdoctoral research fellow in the Cancer Prevention Program at FHCRC.
While the mechanisms by which omega-3s might increase the risk of high-grade prostate cancer are unknown, Dr. Brasky emphasized that omega-3 fats have effects on other biologic processes, some of which may have an impact on the development of certain prostate cancers, and much more research is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn from the study findings. It is also premature to recommend that men (the majority of whom in the study got their omega 3s from eating fish, not from supplements) change their diets in any way. “Overall, the beneficial effects of eating fish to prevent heart disease outweigh any harm related to prostate cancer risk,” Dr. Brasky said. “What this study shows is the complexity of nutrition and its impact on disease risk, and that we should study such associations rigorously rather than make assumptions.”
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Old 04-28-2011, 01:17 PM   #2
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Re: Aggressive Prostate Cancer: High Omega-3s in Blood Doubled the Risk, but High Tra

Do you have a link to the original summary?

Interesting but runs against most summaries I read. See examples below






http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2374335/

Reduced prostate cancer risk was associated with high erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine levels of EPA (multivariate relative risk = 0.59; 95% confidence interval 0.37–0.95, upper vs lowest quartile) and DHA (multivariate relative risk = 0.62; 95% confidence interval 0.39–0.98, upper vs lowest quartile). These analyses support evidence from in vitro experiments for a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with dietary fish oils, possibly acting via inhibition of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoid biosynthesis. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign


http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/12/1/64.short


Each additional daily intake of 0.5 g of marine fatty acid from food was associated with a 24% decreased risk of metastatic cancer. We found that men with high consumption of fish had a lower risk of prostate cancer, especially for metastatic cancer. Marine fatty acids may account for part of the effect, but other factors in fish may also play a role.

http://www.nrjournal.com/article/S02...003-0/abstract


In conclusion, our findings suggest that a high dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids may increase the risk of overall prostate cancer among white men and possibly increase the risk of high-grade prostate cancer among all men.
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Old 04-28-2011, 01:20 PM   #3
R.B.
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Re: Aggressive Prostate Cancer: High Omega-3s in Blood Doubled the Risk, but High Tra

Do you have a link to the original summary?

They were all on an androgen inhibitor. What androgens does this block, as I can foresee potential areas where intervention in the androgen pathways would affect fat conversion etc.

Interesting but runs against most summaries I read. See examples below






http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2374335/

Reduced prostate cancer risk was associated with high erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine levels of EPA (multivariate relative risk = 0.59; 95% confidence interval 0.37–0.95, upper vs lowest quartile) and DHA (multivariate relative risk = 0.62; 95% confidence interval 0.39–0.98, upper vs lowest quartile). These analyses support evidence from in vitro experiments for a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with dietary fish oils, possibly acting via inhibition of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoid biosynthesis. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign


http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/12/1/64.short


Each additional daily intake of 0.5 g of marine fatty acid from food was associated with a 24% decreased risk of metastatic cancer. We found that men with high consumption of fish had a lower risk of prostate cancer, especially for metastatic cancer. Marine fatty acids may account for part of the effect, but other factors in fish may also play a role.

http://www.nrjournal.com/article/S02...003-0/abstract


In conclusion, our findings suggest that a high dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids may increase the risk of overall prostate cancer among white men and possibly increase the risk of high-grade prostate cancer among all men.
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Old 04-28-2011, 07:45 PM   #4
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Re: Aggressive Prostate Cancer: High Omega-3s in Blood Doubled the Risk, but High Tra

Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Apr 24. [Epub ahead of print]
Serum Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

Brasky TM, Till C, White E, Neuhouser ML, Song X, Goodman P, Thompson IM, King IB, Albanes D, Kristal AR.



LINK


Abstract

Inflammation may be involved in prostate cancer development and progression. This study examined the associations between inflammation-related phospholipid fatty acids and the 7-year-period prevalence of prostate cancer in a nested case-control analysis of participants, aged 55-84 years, in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial during 1994-2003. Cases (n = 1,658) were frequency matched to controls (n = 1,803) on age, treatment, and prostate cancer family history. Phospholipid fatty acids were extracted from serum, and concentrations of ω-3, ω-6, and trans-fatty acids (TFAs) were expressed as proportions of the total. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of associations of fatty acids with prostate cancer by grade. No fatty acids were associated with low-grade prostate cancer risk. Docosahexaenoic acid was positively associated with high-grade disease (quartile 4 vs. 1: odds ratio (OR) = 2.50, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34, 4.65); TFA 18:1 and TFA 18:2 were linearly and inversely associated with risk of high-grade prostate cancer (quartile 4 vs. 1: TFA 18:1, OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.98; TFA 18:2, OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.84). The study findings are contrary to those expected from the pro- and antiinflammatory effects of these fatty acids and suggest a greater complexity of effects of these nutrients with regard to prostate cancer risk.

PMID:21518693 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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