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R.B. 04-08-2012 03:31 AM

Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluorine
 

To try and get your interest you may not be aware:

The breast contains the second highest concentrations of iodine after the thyroid; there is increasing evidence that iodine is central to breast health, and that iodine deficiency is a significant factor in the increasing incidence of mastalgia and fibrocystic development, as well as breast cancer.

Iodine deficiency is particularly prevalent in women, and a large number of women in the west are iodine deficient.


(I have since seen suggestions the highest concentration is in the ovaries; actual amount might be greater in the breasts because the quantity will depend on reproductive status and logically size); Nature being as efficient as it is, the centrality of iodine to breast function suggests iodine is important to reproductive function, breast function and health, and indeed the lactating breast concentrates iodine into breast milk because it is essential in infant development.

As well as being essential to reproduction including embryo formation, iodine is fundamental to wider body function, and for a number of reasons many people are deficient, which sounds so trite. I scream to myself with silent frustration because the consequences of iodine deficiency are so enormous, iodine is so cheap, many in the world are iodine deficient, intake levels in the west are often falling, and our intake of iodine competitors and blockers are rising.

A vast amount about the roles of this most fundamental nutrient, iodine, is unknown because in comparative terms there is little funding for research. A lack of funding interest and 'marketing' budgets for 'non profitable' treatment options (how do you define life health and wellbeing in terms of profit) is a consequence of our commercial primary imperative - you cannot patent iodine so however important it is to health there is little impetus to look at its wider roles in the body beyond the thyroid - and they are many - including very important interactions with polyunsaturated fats, and roles in cell maintenance and immune function.

There is some evidence of a link between iodine deficiency, thyroid dysfunction, breast fibrosis, and possibly cancer, and they have know about it since 1896 (See Venturi ref below), so after 100 years maybe it is time for the issue to gain some traction. The negative impact of smoking and requirement for vitamin C both took over 100 years to gain recognition as health issues, so let us hope that iodine will shortly get the focus it deserves.

http://her2support.org/vbulletin/sho...ghlight=iodine
http://www.alfablack.it/iodio/diseases.html

Later Addition


As this thread has developed I have become increasing aware of the relevance of substances that block the use of iodine, and so lead to enlargement of the thyroid at some level even if sub-clinical; for the purposes of these threads these iodine blocking substances are referred to as goitrogens. The breast and other tissues have iodine transporters as does the thyroid, and the iodine metabolism systems in all these tissue are one way or another affected by goitrogens.

Many food are goitrogenic including in particular brassicas and most soy products, but to add to that there are a number of human additions to the food and water chain namely perchlorate, flouride, chlorination of water, nitrates, and others such as chlorinated bi-products such as PCBs that all affect both the thyroid and wider iodine metabolism.

Bromine competes with iodine and is also added to foods and drinks in the US and is possibly used in the brewing industry including in the UK.

Fluoride it appears is produced in large quantities from the burning of coal, and it looks like and logically airborne fluoride is taken in the lungs and via plants and animals through deposition on the land via the food chain.

Higher iodine intake will to some extent balance the effect of goitrogens, but the mechanisms are complex, and some goitrogens have been shown to severely impact on thyroid mechanisms even where iodine intake is generous.

This vast increase in goitrogenic substances in our lives is a strong argument for a greater need for iodine in the diet. How much iodine we need is a hotly debated topic but based on the large numbers of those that are showing thyroid disturbance, and surveys of iodine deficiency, it is certain that many of us are not getting even minimal amounts needed with dire long term health consequences. The iodine intake that was sufficient to prevent ill-health is logically no longer sufficient given the huge amounts of human additions of goitrogenic substances to out diet. (Absorption through the lungs from air and skin from water are also a factors).

Fluoride is one of a number of goitrogens, which focuses a spotlight on water fluoridation. The problem is not the fluoridation of water per se but its additive effect to the large number of high fluoride sources, and the increasing of natural levels by human activity, which maybe were not fully appreciated when the policy was developed including as stated above chlorination, bromination, the use of nitrates, perchlorate from fertiliser and explosives, and other chlorine products such as PCBs. . Fluoride is naturally found in found in food and water, including in high levels in fish; but in fish it comes with iodine, whereas most land based foods contain very limited iodine. Some traditional inland cultures used to address the need for iodine by for example burning and eating the ash of water based plants that accumulated iodine, or trading fish eggs, but many did not and suffered high levels of full blown goitre.

Importantly this http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j...55123115,d.Yms Chinese study of a population with both high fluoride 3mg per litre (approx) and relatively high iodine 1mg per liter (approx) in their water observed "In high iodine and high fluorine areas, the goiter and dental fluorosis rates of children aged from 8 to 12 were 29.8% and 72.98%." which suggests that higher iodine alone may not mitigate high fluoride intake (other factors such as minerals intake, selenium levels etc. may explain why fluoride appears more potent in some areas than others)

Does high fluoride intake in whole marine foods have the same effect is a question I raise, as we have always associated fish intake with healthy populations. Fish would also contain important minerals such as selenium and zinc as well as iodine. Fluoride apparently actively binds with selenium which may be protective against the effects of fluoride. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20143719 Apparently it also bind with other minerals, so could part of the effect of fluoride be to inactivate minerals, which are often already in short supply in the western diet, but are provided in marine foods. Absorption of fluoride in fluid form is also apparently more efficient than from food it is suggested; as ever things are multifaceted and complex.

This video the flouridealert web site powerfully highlights why fluoride as a 'goitrogen' (iodine blocker) is a big potential issue; and whilst it deals with the thyroid, the impact of iodine deficiency is much wider including on breast tissue and formation. But it is also fundamentally important not to lose sight of all the other things we are doing that increase iodine blocking substances in our diet, water and air.

http://fluoridealert.org/fan-tv/fluo...thyroid-gland/


All in all a depressingly big Ouch ):


I have reposted below a comment in the Omega 3 6 thread and links to other threads on the subject, with the hope of creating a thread that will be of sufficient interest to remain on the front page of the diet section.

R.B. 04-08-2012 03:32 AM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
Iodine is another potential major dietary issue. It is hard to believe in a modern world with so many resources and so much technology that many people are iodine deficient, but that is exactly what the evidence and science points to.

Iodine is truly fundamental to the function of the body. Only 20-40% of the stored iodine in the body (this is in the iodine 'replete' - possibly the Japanese - in contrast in those with 'low' intakes, a higher proportion is present in the thyroid - see later posts) is in the thyroid, the other 60-80% is used in other cells all over the body, in a variety of very important ways. Iodine has very particular chemical / physical properties and may well have been fundamental in the development of life as outlined in the paper below by Professor Venturi, a leading and arguably under-recognised researcher in the field. (See link to his paper below)

Many people are arguably iodine insufficient due to a combination of low intake, iodine blocking foods, higher iodine utilisation, iodine blocking chemicals, and the inclusion in the diet of 'large' amounts of bromine and fluorine products which compete with iodine.

Western recommended intakes are much lower than recorded Japanese intakes. Current Japanese intake was reported to be about 1mg a day, and their parents ate more. Historically the Japanese had lower levels of many western conditions.

Iodine in the soil is deficient in many parts of the world, so you cannot count on getting it in your diet. Some Governments have recognised falling iodine intake is a serious health issue, for example in Australia they have restarted to iodise bread.

Iodine intakes have fallen significantly over the last 30 years, for a number of reasons. For example the intake / iodination of foods has fallen and iodine is no longer used to disinfect cattle milking systems / teats.

There are many factors in the modern lifestyle and diet that increase the requirement for iodine. Things that block iodine uptake and usage by the body are everywhere, for example fire retardants, and form an increasing part of our lives. Many of the healthy green vegetables such as brassica are goitregenic (iodine blocking). Industrial production and some rock based fertilizers introduce perchlorate into the food chain. Perchlorate is a strong iodine blocker.

Other chemicals of the same family as iodine, the halides, such as fluoride and bromide compete with iodine and block iodine usage and uptake. Our intakes of bromine and fluorine have significantly increased.

For example bromide is added to flour in some countries, and included in drinks. It is also used a a flame retardant. Bromide intake does significantly increase bromide in tissue. Sea foods do contain significant amounts of bromine but also contain iodine. Bromine has a role in some cells in the immune system. The problem seems to be the imbalance between iodine and bromine and ultimately lack of iodine.

Fluoride is added to water and toothpaste, and there is evidence it may protect young teeth, but does not seem to have much effect on adult teeth - but possibly at the cost of reducing the structural 'hardness' of the bone in teeth - does that include other bones I have no idea, but logically it might.

Most foods contain very little iodine. The primary source of iodine is marine foods. Seaweeds often contain from significant to very large amounts of iodine.

Iodine is concentrated by the breast and dairy foods are an important dietary iodine source, but many now avoid dairy products. The amount of iodine in the milk will reflect the amount in the pasture / and or feed - so cattle fed on deficient pastures will produce milk low in iodine.

Some fresh water plants provide a source of iodine and some cultures would burn them and eat the ash.

We are probably able to survive on relatively low iodine intakes on a 'natural' diet in an unpolluted world, and many peoples who had relatively limited access to iodine lived long health lives. These people may have relied on particular food sources to provide the minimum of iodine needed. People of the Andes carried and traded fish eggs far inland. Mountain people like the Georgians and Hunza ate dairy products. People in Africa are reported to have collected burnt and ate fresh water plants. In contrast some populations (2 billion or so people globally) are seriously iodine deficient with very serious health and potential developmental consequences, including lowered IQ.

Many western populations are also seriously iodine deficient. The problem today is a combination of changing diets that increase iodine need, dietary goitregens, chemical goitregens, and declining intake.

Iodine has many roles in the body and deficiency results in a wide range of health issues.

Everything in the body interlinks, for example selenium has particular importance in the metabolism of iodine, and in considering iodine intakes it is important not to loose sight of the whole picture. Omega 3 and 6 which also interact with iodine, which is where my interest started, and lead to me reading round the subject.

This passionate excellent and highly thought provoking video by a respected Doctor who has been working with iodine for a number of years deals with some of the items mentioned above in more detail, as well as setting out his clinical experience in using iodine to treat his patients. The video is iodine centric, and needs to be considered in a wider dietary context.

You may wish to start the video at 1 hour 24 minutes 05 seconds where Dr Brownstein talks about iodine and breast cancer.

Sadly research into iodine is limited presumably because it cannot be patented - one of the flaws of a purely financially driven economic model.

As usual please discuss dietary change with your doctor.


"Environmental iodine deficiency: A challenge to the evolution of terrestrial life?

Venturi S, Donati FM, Venturi A, Venturi M.
Thyroid. 2000 Aug;10(8):727-9.

A new link to Dr Venturi's papers https://scholar.google.com/citations...z80AAAAJ&hl=en

and home page https://sites.google.com/site/iodinestudies/

Dr Venturi says in the paper “In conclusion, we believe that environmental iodine deficiency might be an important evolutionary factor of terrestrial life of vertebrates. ”




A must watch - excellent lectures from impassioned health professionals - the first (in green) video lecture I only found recently and is linked later in this thread; I have copied it here because it is more general in nature, by a woman, and probably a better lecture to start with. Dr Brownsteins is more specialist but equally fascinating



The main section on the implications of iodine for the breast may be the place to start to get you attention; it starts at about 4.10 and again at 36.36. Please bear with the controversial introduction on vaccines - I have not formed a view on this very complex topic of susceptibility or not, of possibly some infants, to consequences from multiple vaccination and how any such risk balances with wider gains, but do know that smallpox https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smallpox for example, a 'devastating' sometimes fatal condition has so far as is known been eradicated by a vaccine program http://www.who.int/csr/disease/smallpox/en/ -.

Apparently the lecturer spent 10 years as a board certified female physician in ER, and her move into a more integrated medicine is based on a wide range of experiences. The lecture on iodine is very much research based.

"Dr. Sherry Tenpenny outlines the many disorders that come about because of iodine deficiency IAOMT 2007 L.V. This is a must see, especially for women that have problems with their thyroid or their breasts."
.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hMjKmi12UX0



Iodine The Misunderstood Nutrient David Brownstein

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kd34EJ5E3bI

R.B. 04-08-2012 03:41 AM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
Thyroid disease and breast cancer - other past links on this site

http://her2support.org/vbulletin/sho...ghlight=iodine


Nontoxic Goiter Tied to Higher Risk of Breast Cancer

http://her2support.org/vbulletin/sho...ghlight=iodine

Good source for seaweed?

http://her2support.org/vbulletin/sho...ghlight=iodine

Is anyone discontinuing meds for hypothyroidism?

http://her2support.org/vbulletin/sho...ghlight=iodine


Iodine & Breast Cancer

http://her2support.org/vbulletin/sho...ghlight=iodine


iodine loading test for iodine deficiency; mistletoe

http://her2support.org/vbulletin/sho...ghlight=iodine


Lugol's solution

http://her2support.org/vbulletin/sho...ghlight=iodine

R.B. 04-08-2012 04:44 AM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
Just in case you missed the link above, or question that there is science behind this thread


Published in "THE BREAST" , Vol.10, Number 5, 2001, p 379-382,

IS THERE A ROLE FOR IODINE IN BREAST DISEASES?

Sebastiano Venturi, Servizio di Igiene, ASL n.1, Regione Marche; Pennabilli (Pesaro), Italy


http://www.alfablack.it/iodio/diseases.html
SUMMARY


It is hypothesized that dietary iodine deficiency is associated with the development of mammary pathology and cancer. A review of the literature on this correlation and of the author's own work on the antioxidant function of iodide in iodide-concentrating extrathyroidal cells is reported. Mammary gland embryogenetically derived from primitive iodide-concentrating ectoderma, and alveolar and ductular cells of the breast specialize in uptake and secretion of iodine in milk in order to supply offsprings with this important trace-element. Breast and thyroid share an important iodide-concentrating ability and an efficient peroxidase activity, which transfers electrons from iodides to the oxygen of hydrogen peroxide, forming iodoproteins and iodolipids, and so protects the cells from peroxidative damage. The mammary gland has only a temporary ability in concentrating iodides, almost exclusively during pregnancy and lactation, which are considered protective conditions against breast cancer.


INTRODUCTION

Iodine is the richest in electrons of the required elements in the animal diet. In humans the total amount of iodine is about 30-50 mg and about 60%-80 % of total iodine is non-hormonal and it is concentrated in extrathyroidal tissues, where its biological role is still unknown. We have recently hypothesized that iodide might have an ancestral antioxidant function in all iodide-concentrating cells (1-5). In these cells iodide acts as an electron donor in the presence of H2O2 and peroxidase, and the remaining iodine atom readily iodinates tyrosine, histidine or certain specific lipids. In fact, iodine can add to double bonds of some polyunsaturated fatty acids of cellular membranes, making them less reactive to free oxygen radicals (6-7). Isolated cells of extrathyroidal tissues of mice could produce "in vitro" protein-bound mono-iodotyrosine, di-iodotyrosine and also other iodocompounds which seem to be iodolipids during chromatography (8). According to Cann et al. (9) iodolipids are present and active also in mammary cells.



IODINE AND BREAST ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

In the Mammal, iodide uptake has been demonstrated in various extrathyroidal tissues, including salivary gland, gastric mucosa, and the lactating mammary gland (10-11). Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is the proteic transmembrane transporter of iodide. Cloning and molecular characterization of the human NIS have been recently performed. (12-13). The mammary gland has a high but temporary ability to concentrate iodides and to form iodocompounds (9,14) in alveolar and ductular cells by specific peroxidases (15), almost exclusively during pregnancy and lactation, which are considered protective conditions against breast cancer. In fact, during pregnancy and lactation, hormonal stimulation of the breast leads to glandular differentiation with dramatically enhanced iodine adsorption and organification (14). It is interesting to note that this iodine adsorption occurs in the same ductal epithelium (9, 16-17) where the majority of breast cancer arise. Lactoperoxidases, which are particularly active during pregnancy and lactation, organifies iodide in the breast. According to Eskin (18), iodine plays an important role in the maintenance of both normal thyroid and breast physiology. Recently, a second pathway for iodine organification has been described, which involves iodine incorporation into specific lipid molecules (polyunsaturated fatty acids). These iodolipids have been shown to be regulators of thyroid cells metabolism and proliferation. In particular 6-iodo-5-hydroxy-eicosatrienoic acid (delta-iodolactone) has been found to be a potent inhibitor of thyroid cells proliferation (19-21) and according to Cann et al. (9) these iodolipids may also play a role in anti-proliferative control of breast tissue. Tazebay et al. (22) reported that expression of NIS in normal mammary tissues is stimulated by oxytocin, which is released during lactation. In ovariectomized rats, a combination of estrogen, oxytocin and prolactin (PRL) led to maximal NIS expression in mammary cells. But what role does iodide play in mammary cells? We may chronologically differentiate (2, 4-5) on the basis of the phylogenesis and embryogenesis two possible mechanisms of action of iodine: 1) the first is more ancient acting directly on mammary cells which embryologically originate from iodide-concentrating ectoderma and epidermis, with iodide in mammary cells acting probably as antioxidant. 2) the second mechanism of action is more modern, wit iodine acting indirectly via thyroid hormones and their specific nuclear receptors. Hormonal imbalances can cause dysfunction of mammary glands. Rat mammary gland is able to take up (via NIS) and organically bind radioiodide. Iodination was not detected in mammary glands from non-pregnant rats. Protein-containing vacuoles in alveolar cells and casein-like proteins in milk are the major sites where iodination occurred within the gland. Milk proteins in the lumens of ductules adjacent to alveoli are also iodinated. Endogenous mammary peroxidases correlate with the ability to iodinate. In contrast, ducts, myoepithelial cells, fat cells, blood vessels and other histological components of the gland did not show iodinating capability (15).


IODINE AND BREAST PATHOLOGY

Eskin (16) reported that iodine is a prerequisite for the normal development of breast tissue in higher vertebrates. When lacking, the parenchyma in rodents and humans show atypia, dysplasia, and even neoplasia; in fact breast tissues are more susceptible to carcinogen action. In iodide- deficient rats Strum (17) also reported that atrophy, necrosis and also areas of dysplasia and atypia take place in the mammary gland, which becomes highly sensitive to stimulation by oestradiol. In this way, oestradiol stimulates cell division and leads to the formation of alveoli with great quantities of lipid and protein droplets in large vacuoles which subsequently leads to the formation of cysts within the mammary gland. Eskin and coworkers (18, 23-26) reported a marked hyperplasia and papillomatosis of mammary ducts from rat given oestrogen in presence of disturbed thyroid-iodine metabolism and also a periductal fibrosis similar to that seen naturally in so-called fibrocystic disease of women. Dietary replacement therapy of iodine is able to improve these alterations in mammary tissue. Ghent et al. (27) reported that 70% of of women with fibrocystic breast disease orally treated with sodium iodide had clinical improvement in their breast disease. A decrease or loss of NIS expression may represent an early abnormality of thyroid (28) and breast (29) carcinogenesis rather than this occurring as a consequence of cancer progression. Statistical correlations between dietary iodine, thyroid diseases and breast cancer have been carried out by Ellerker (30), Stadel (31), Serra-Majem et al. (32), Smyth et al.(33) Giani et al.(34), Vassilopoulou- Sellin et al. (35) and Cann et al. (9). There is epidemiological evidence of the protective role against breast cancer of dietary fish (rich in iodine) (36-39) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, in which specific double bonds are protected by iodine from peroxidation. (6-7). Japanese women who have the highest iodine intake (4-10 mg /daily / per person) have the lowest rate of breast cancer mortality in the world. In fact populations of Japan frequently eat a notable quantity of marine algae (seaweed), which are very rich in iodine (40-41), whereas RDA (recommended dietary allowance) of iodine is 150-200 micrograms per day. Recently, many researchers studied NIS in mammary gland. Tazebay et al. (22) reported that mammary NIS may be an essential breast cancer marker and that radioiodide should be studied as having a possible role in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Kilbane et al. (42) demonstrated NIS expression in benign fibroadenomata and breast carcinoma, but total tissue iodine levels in benign tumours were significantly higher than those in breast cancers taken from either the tumor or morphologically normal tissue taken from within the tumour-bearing breast. Kogai et al. (43) reported that the NIS stimulates iodide uptake in normal lactating breast, but is not known to be active in nonlactating breast or breast cancer. Retinoic acid induces sodium/iodide symporter gene expression and radioiodide uptake in breast cancer cells. So, stimulation of radioiodide uptake after systemic retinoid treatment could be useful for diagnosis and treatment of some differentiated breast cancers. Rillema et al. (44) have shown that iodide accumulates in milk at higher concentration than in maternal plasma and that PRL enhances iodide accumulation in cultured mammary tissues, via stimulation of NIS. Cho et al. (45) suggested that iodine uptake and NIS expression in mammary gland are modulated by hormones involved in active lactation. NIS is clustered on the basolateral membrane of alveolar cells. The iodine uptake of lactating mammary gland is partially inhibited by treatment with a selective oxytocin antagonist or bromocriptine, an inhibitor of PRL release.

IODINE AND THYROID HORMONE IN THE THERAPY OF BREAST DISEASES

Beatson (46) reported adjuvant use of thyroid extract in some breast cancers in the "Lancet", as far back as 1896. Ghent et al. (26) reported that iodine treatment of women with benign breast disease caused a significant bilateral reduction in breast size, in addition to causing a remission of disease symptoms. Eskin and co-workers (47-48) showed a mammary tumor reduction in rats after iodine treatment. Some researchers found that the seaweed-supplemented diet (rich in iodine) is associated with an inhibition and delay in development of mammary cancer in rats (49-51). Funahashi et al. reported recently that both Japanese edible Wakame seaweed (52) and also a direct uptake of inorganic iodine (53) by tumor has experimentally a suppressive effect on DMBA-induced breast tumors growth in the rat. NIS expression is inversely related to undifferentiation, malignity and it is directly related to likelihoodof therapeutic effectiveness of radioiodine therapy. Recent studies reported that genetic characterisation and induction of the human NIS gene allows the development of novel gene therapy also for treatment of extrathyroidal and mammary malignancies (54). In fact, targeted expression of functional NIS in undifferentiated cancer cells would enable these cells to concentrate iodine and would therefore offer the possibility of radioiodine therapy (55-56). Boland et al. (57) propose to enlarge the therapeutic strategy to nonthyroid tumors by using an adenoviral vector to deliver the NIS gene into the tumor cells for a targeted radiotherapy.

In conclusion, the thyroid is not the only organ known to organify iodide and forming Iodocompounds. There is evidence for extrathyroidal iodide-concentrating organs, including the lactating breast and stomach. The knowledge of this iodinating ability and of the antioxidant and antitumour activity of iodide might be useful for helping to prevent breast cancer and also as a novel gene to allow radioiodine therapy to be given to patients with breast cancer (58). The extrathyroidal actions of iodide are an important new area for investigation.



REFERENCES

1. Venturi S, Venturi M. Does iodide in the gastric mucosa have an ancient antioxidant role ? IDD-Newsletter 1998; 14, 4 :61-2

2. Venturi S, Venturi M, Venturi M. Ruolo dello ioduro nella cancerogenesi dello stomaco e della mammella: un antico antiossidante?
Quad Oncol 1998; 8 :37-40

3. Venturi S, Venturi M . Iodide, thyroid and stomach carcinogenesis: evolutionary story of a primitive antioxidant ? Europ J Endocrinol 1999; 140, 4 :371-2 http://www.eje.org/eje/140/eje1400371.htm 4.

Venturi S, Donati FM ,Venturi M, Venturi A, Grossi L, Guidi A. Role of iodine in evolution and carcinogenesis of thyroid, breast and stomach. Adv Clin Path 2000; 4,1:11-17

5. Venturi S, Donati FM, Venturi M, Venturi A. Environmental Iodine Deficiency: A Challenge to the Evolution of Terrestrial Life? Thyroid 2000; 10, 8 :727-9

6. Cocchi M, Venturi S. Iodide, antioxidant function and omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids: a new hypothesis of a biochemical cooperation? Prog Nutr 2000; 2 :15-19

7. Cocchi M, Venturi S. Selenium and Iodide: ancient antioxidants of cellular membranes? 7th Internat Symp on Selenium in Biology and Medicine. Venezia (Italy) Oct.1-5, 2000 Abstract P-88 :134

8. Banerjee RK, Bose AK, Chakraborty TK, De SK, Datta AG. Peroxidase-catalysed iodotyrosine formation in dispersed cells of mouse extrathyroidal tissues. J Endocrinol 1985; 106 2 :159-65

9. Cann SA, van Netten JP, van Netten C. Hypothesis: iodine, selenium and the development of breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11(2):121-7

10. Ullberg S, Ewaldsson B. Distribution of radio-iodine studied by whole-body autoradiography. Acta Radiologica Therapy Physics Biology 1964; 2 :24-32

11. Bakheet SM, Hammami MM. Patterns of radioiodine uptake by the lactating breast. Europ J Nucl med 1994 ; 21 : 604-8.

12. Dai G, Levy O, Carrasco N. Cloning and characterization of the thyroid iodide transporter. Nature. 1996 Feb 1; 379 (6564):458-60.

13. Smanik PA, Liu Q, Furminger TL, Ryu K, Xing S, Mazzaferri EL, Jhiang SM. Cloning of the human sodium lodide symporter. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Sep 13;226(2):339-45.

14. Shah NM. Iodoprotein formation by rat mammary glands during pregnancy and early postpartum period. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1986; 181 (3) :443-449

15. Strum JM. Site of iodination in rat mammary gland. Anat Rec 1978; 192 :235-244

16. Eskin BA. Iodine and mammary cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1977; 91:293-304.

17. Strum JM. Effect of iodide-deficiency on rat mammary gland. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol Incl Mol Pathol 1979; 30 (2) :209-20

18. Eskin BA. Iodine metabolism and breast cancer. Trans N Y Acad Sci. 1970 Dec;32(8):911-47.

19. Dugrillon A. Iodolactones and iodoaldehydes mediators of iodine in thyroid autoregulation. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1996;104 Suppl 4:41-5.

20. Gartner R, Dugrillon A, Bechtner G. Evidence that iodolactones are the mediators of growth inhibition by iodine on the thyroid. Acta Med Austriaca. 1996;23(1-2):47-51. Review.

21. Pisarev MA, Chazenbalk GD, Valsecchi RM, Burton G, Krawiec L, Monteagudo E, Juvenal GJ, Boado RJ, Chester HA. Thyroid autoregulation. Inhibition of goiter growth and of cyclic AMP formation in rat thyroid by iodinated derivatives of arachidonic acid. J Endocrinol Invest 1988 Oct;11(9):669-74.

22. Tazebay UH, Wapnir IL, Levy O, Dohan O, Zuckier LS, Zhao QH, Deng HF, Amenta PS, Fineberg S, Pestell RG, Carrasco N. The mammary gland iodide transporter is expressed during lactation and in breast cancer. Nature Med. 2000 Aug; 6(8):871-8.

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25. Eskin BA, Merion JA, Krouse TB, Shuman R. Blockade of breast iodine by perchlorate in estrogen deficiency. Monograph. 1976 Dec 1; 14 :625-9.

26. Eskin BA. Iodine and mammary cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1977; 91:293-304.

27. Ghent WR, Eskin BA, Low DA, Lucius PH. Iodine replacement in fibrocystic disease of breast. Canad J Surg 1993; 36 :453-460.

28. Filetti S, Bidart JM, Arturi F, Caillou B, Russo D, Schlumberger M Sodium/iodide symporter: a key transport system in thyroid cancer cell metabolism.Eur J Endocrinol 1999 Nov; 141(5) :443-57.

29. Strum JM. Autoradiographic evidence of a loss of iodination within hormone-dependent GR mouse mammary tumors as they progress to independence. Anat Rec 1982;204 (4):323-32.

30. Ellerker AG. Breast cancer in hypothyroid subjects. Pro Roy Soc Med 1955; 48 :554-60.

31. Stadel BV. Dietary iodine and risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancer. Lancet 1976; 24 :890-1

32. Serra-Majem LL, Tresserras R,Canela J, Salleras L . Dietary iodine deficiency and breast cancer mortality: an ecological study. Int J Epidemiol 1988; 17 (3) :686-7.

33. Smyth PP. The thyroid and breast cancer: a significant association? Ann Med 1997; 29 :189-91

34. Giani C, Fierabracci P, Bonacci R, Gigliotti A, Campani D, De Negri F, Cecchetti D, Martino E, Pinchera A. Relationship between breast cancer and thyroid disease: relevance of autoimmune thyroid disorders in breast malignancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81:990-4.

35. Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Palmer L, Taylor S, Cooksley CS. Incidence of breast carcinoma in women with thyroid carcinoma. Cancer. 1999 Feb 1; 85(3):696-705.

36. Kaizer L, Boyd NF, Kriukov V, Tritchler D. Fish consumption and breast cancer risk: an ecological study. Nutr Cancer. 1989; 12(1):61-8.

37. Vatten LJ, Solvoll K, Loken EB. Frequency of meat and fish intake and risk of breast cancer in a prospective study of 14,500 Norwegian women. Int J Cancer. 1990 Jul 15 ;46(1):12-5.

38. Lund E, Bonaa KH. Reduced breast cancer mortality among fishermen's wives in Norway. Cancer Causes Control. 1993 May; 4(3):283-7.

39. Caygill CP, Charlett A, Hill MJ. Fat, fish, fish oil and cancer. Br J Cancer. 1996 Jul;74(1):159-64.

40. SuzuKi H, Higuchi T, Sawa K et al. Endemic coast goitre in Hokkaido. Japan Acta Endocr 1965;50: 161-70.

41. Konno N, Yuri K, Miura K, Kumagai M, Murakami S. Clinical evaluation of the iodide/creatinine ratio of casual urine samples as an index of daily iodide excretion in a population study. Endocr J. 1993 Feb;40(1):163-9.

42. Kilbane MT, Ajjan RA, Weetman AP, Dwyer R, McDermott EW, O'Higgins NJ, Smyth PP. Tissue iodine content and serum-mediated 125I uptake-blocking activity in breast cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000 Mar; 85(3):1245-50.

43. Kogai T, Schultz JJ, Johnson LS, Huang M, Brent GA. Retinoic acid induces sodium/iodide symporter gene expression and radioiodide uptake in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jul 18;97(15):8519-24.

44. Rillema JA, Yu TX, Jhiang SM. Effect of prolactin on sodium iodide symporter expression in mouse mammary gland explants. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Oct;279(4):E769-E772.

45. Cho JY, Leveille R, Kao R, Rousset B, Parlow AF, Burak WE Jr, Mazzaferri EL, Jhiang SM. Hormonal regulation of radioiodide uptake activity and Na+/I- symporter expression in mammary glands. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Aug; 85(8):2936-43.

46. Beatson GT. Adjuvant use of thyroid extract in breast cancer. Lancet 1896; 104 2 :164

47. Eskin BA, Connelly CP, Grotkowski CE, Ghent WR. Tumor reduction in rat mammary gland carcinogenesis with iodine treatment. Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res 1992; 33 Al 682.

48. Eskin BA. Dinamic effects of iodine therapy on breast cancer and the thyroid. Proc Int Thyr Symp 1996; 6 :192-7.

49. Teas J, Harbison ML and Gelman RS. Dietary Seaweed (Laminaria) and Mammary Carcinogenesis in Rats. Cancer Research 1984; 44 :2758-2762.

50. Yamamoto I, Maruyama H and Moriguchi M. The Effect of Dietary Seaweeds on 7,12- Dimethyl-benz(a)anthracene-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in Rats. Cancer Letters 1987; 35: 109-118.

51. Maruyama H, Watanabe K and Yamamoto I. Effect of Dietary Kelp on Lipid Peroxidation and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in Livers of Rats Given Breast Carcinogen DMBA. Nutr Cancer 1991; 15, 221-228.

52. Funahashi H, Imai T, Tanaka Y, Tsukamura K, Hayakawa Y et al. Wakame seaweed suppreses the proliferation of 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)-antracene-induced mammary tumors in rats. Jpn J Cancer Res 1999; 90, :922-927.

53. Funahashi H, Imai T, Tanaka Y, Tobinaga J, Wada M, Morita T et al. Suppressive effect of iodine on DMBA-induced breast tumor growth in the rat . J Surg Oncol 1996; 61, 3 :209-13.

[ 53a.] Funahashi H et al. Seaweed Prevents Breast Cancer ? Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 92, 483-487, 2001

54. Spitzweg C, Joba W, Eisenmenger W, Heufelder AE. Analysis of human sodium iodide symporter gene expression in extrathyroidal tissues and cloning of its complementary deoxyribonucleic acid from salivary gland, mammary gland, and gastric mucosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83, 5 :1746-51.

55. Shimura H, Haraguchi K, Miyazaki A, Endo T, Onaya T. Iodide uptake and experimental 131I therapy in transplanted undifferentiated thyroid cancer cells expressing the Na+/I-symporter gene. Endocrinology 1997 Oct;138 (10) :4493-6.

56. Mandell RB, Mandell LZ, Link CJ Jr. Radioisotope concentrator gene therapy using the sodium/iodide symporter gene. Cancer Res 1999 Feb 1; 59(3):661-8.

57. Boland A, Ricard M, Opolon P, Bidart JM, Yeh P, Filetti S, Schlumberger M, Perricaudet M. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of the thyroid sodium/iodide symporter gene into tumors for a targeted radiotherapy. Cancer Res 2000 Jul 1; 60(13):3484-92.

58. Daniels GH, Haber DA. Will radioiodine be useful in treatment of breast cancer? Nature Med 2000 Aug; 6 (8) :859-60.

R.B. 04-08-2012 10:37 AM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
If you have got this far without getting a numb brain or falling asleep (-: some information on bromides

http://www.breastcancerchoices.org/b...ncetheory.html

R.B. 08-07-2012 02:54 AM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
This site has lots of info on iodine, and Dr Flechas seems to be particularly well informed.

His radio broadcast is fascinating.


These old links no longer work; I will try and track new ones down

Found it; :)

They can be found on this page http://iodineresearch.com/hormones.html

Just to be clear in respect to the reference to miconized gold at the end of the interview I know nothing about the metabolism of gold in the body or brain, and cannot find any research into it. I have since found this http://www.newmediaexplorer.org/chri...oidal_gold.htm As they say - more research needed.

In contrast there is research into iodine, and several doctors report benefits from looking at patients iodine levels.

I believe that pharmaceutical industry has an important role to play and has made some wondrous discoveries; However I do agree that more emphasis should be put on making sure we get the nutrients we need, and greater awareness of the effects of food processing at a biological level and the potential dangers they pose on an additive basis (e.g. each effect individually may not be a problem but taken in a wider context of the basket of changes are detrimental to health) is needed. Western conditions were virtually unknown in historic non westernised tribal populations prior to the introduction of western foods, but they did suffer from all sort of conditions caused by external agents which modern medicine has learned how to mitigate.




"Iodine

Flechas JD

MP3 audio -- 50 minutes (takes a while to download)

RadioLiberty.com January 26, 2007.



In this 50-minute radio presentation (mp3 audio), Flechas covers roughly the same issues as in the earlier 2-hour presentation (see below). There are a few additional ideas, however, that I would like to mention.



Sweating and Breast Cancer. In the earlier tape, he mentions that iodine is necessary to sweat. Here he mentions that lack of sweating may precede breast cancer.



Bromide and Cancer. Increased levels of bromide contribute to cancer.



Cancer and Iodine. The following cancers are associated with goiter and iodine deficiency: breast, thyroid, endometrium, esophageal, ovarian, stomach.



Hormone Receptors. The receptors for almost every major hormone and neurotransmitter need iodine in order to function efficiently -- thyroid hormones, testosterone, cortisol, insulin, and more. The single iodide that is removed in transforming T4 to T3 can join receptors and increase their sensitivity.



Thyroid Hormones and Breast Cancer. Supplemental Thyroid Hormones are not benign. They double the risk of breast cancer, and that risk increases over time.



Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Absorption. Supplemental Thyroid Hormones inhibit the ability of the body to absorb iodine, thus increasing breast cancer risk.



Iodine and Lipids. Iodine keeps the fats and lipids in the body from getting oxidized. This is one of Iodine's most important functions. 70% of the body iodine is found in muscles and fat (vs. 3% in the thyroid)."

Ellie F 08-07-2012 03:36 AM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
Thanks rb for taking the time and effort to raise our awareness.
When I was diagnosed I took kelp supps to increase my iodine levels. Since then I have lapsed a bit. I only have small amounts of dairy and earlier this year was diagnosed with osteoporosis. My oncologist amongst other things suggested eating seaweed for the calcium and iodine content so we'll see how it goes.
Ellie

'lizbeth 08-07-2012 07:54 AM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
Thanks R.B.

In the last year or so I developed terrible breast pain in the remaining breast. I checked with Dr. Google and decided to try Kelp with iodine. The pain went away and I didn't think anything about it. I finished the bottle of Kelp and forgot about ordering a replacement. The breast pain came back and it was so bad I was in the store looking for Kelp supplements ASAP.

I mentioned it to the doctor and he sent me to Breast Health. The nurse prescribed Vitamin B1, B6 and E - but was not familiar with iodine. It was on the list she gave me for mastalgia.

Then I remembered that a few months before the pain started San Diego started adding fluoride to the water. I've made an effort to purchase bottle water such as Penta or Evian to avoid the fluoride.

R.B. 02-05-2013 03:39 PM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
The breast has specific 'transporters' to concentrate iodine - probably in part to supply iodine in breast milk, and it part because a type of cells in the breast which line the ducts - epithelial cells - appear to use iodine and or iodide.

It appears that cancer cells have a higher iodine and or iodide requirement, and the sodium iodide importer is over expressed in cancer cells including particularly ER positive cases.

They are looking at this as a mechanism to direct radioactive iodine/iodide to cells, but it begs the what would be the effect of higher intakes of iodine/iodide on cancer growths.

The article in the post below suggest some have looked at the effect of iodine on tumors, and the results were interesting


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3544659/

Quantitative Immunohistochemical Analysis Reveals Association between Sodium Iodide Symporter and Estrogen Receptor Expression in Breast Cancer.
Chatterjee S, Malhotra R, Varghese F, Bukhari AB, Patil A, Budrukkar A, Parmar V, Gupta S, De A.
Source

Functional Molecular Imaging Lab, ACTREC, Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, India.
Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Human sodium iodide symporter (hNIS) gene over-expression is under active consideration worldwide as an alternative target molecule for breast cancer (BC) diagnosis and targeted radio-iodine treatment. However, the field demands better stratified analysis of endogenous hNIS expression across major BC subtypes. Therefore, we have analyzed subtype-specific variation of hNIS overexpression in breast tumor tissue samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and also report the development of a homogeneous, quantitative analysis method of digital IHC images.
METHODS:

hNIS expression was analyzed from 108 BC tissue samples by IHC. Sub-cellular localization of hNIS protein was analyzed by dual immunofluorescence (IF) staining method using hNIS and HER2 antibodies. An ImageJ based two-step digital analysis method was developed and applied for the bias-free analysis of the images.
RESULTS:

Staining of the tumor samples show 70% cases are hNIS positive indicating high incidence of hNIS positive cases in BC. More importantly, a subtype specific analysis done for the first time shows that hNIS expression is overly dominated in estrogen receptor (ER) positive cases than the receptor negative cases. Further, 56% of the ER+ve, PgR+ve, HER2-ve and 36% of ER+ve, PgR+ve, HER2+ve cases show highest intensity staining equivalent to the thyroid tissue. A significant positive correlation is also observed between hNIS and estrogen receptor expression (p = 0.0033, CI = 95%) suggesting hNIS mediated targeted radio-iodine therapy procedures may benefit both ER+ve, PgR+ve, HER2-ve as well as HER2+ve cases. Further, in a few cases, hNIS and HER2 protein localization is demonstrated by overlapping membrane co-expression. ImageJ based image analysis method shows over 70% match with manual pathological scoring method.
CONCLUSION:

The study indicates a positive link between hNIS and ER expression in BC. The quantitative IHC image analysis method reported here will further help in patient stratification and potentially benefit global clinical assessment where hNIS mediated targeted (131)I radio-ablative therapy is aimed.


The potential of iodine for improving breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.
Altman MB, Flynn MJ, Nishikawa RM, Chetty IJ, Barton KN, Movsas B, Kim JH, Brown SL.
Source

Henry Ford Health System, Department of Radiation Oncology, 2799 W. Grand Blvd., Detroit, MI 48202, USA. maltman@radonc.wustl.edu
Abstract

Early detection through modalities such as mammography remains pivotal in the fight against breast cancer. The detectability of breast cancer through mammography is rooted in the differential X-ray attenuation properties of cancerous and normal breast tissue. An unexplored component of the X-ray contrast between fibrous breast tissue and similarly composed tumor tissue is the presence of naturally localized iodine in the cancer but not healthy breast tissue. It is hypothesized that differing amounts of iodine are present in tumor versus normal breast tissue that leads to more easily detectable cancer due to an increased Z value of the tumor tissue relative to the healthy tissue, which results in enhanced differences in X-ray attenuation properties between the two tissues and thus greater radiographic contrast. The hypothesis is supported by experimental observations explaining how iodine could localize in the tumor tissue but not surrounding healthy tissue. Breast cancer cells express the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), an ion pump which sequesters iodine in tumor cells. Healthy non-lactating breast tissue, in contrast, does not express NIS. Further evidence for the differential expression of NIS resulting in X-ray contrast enhancement in breast cancer is the established correlation between expression of insulin growth factor (IGF) and enhanced X-ray contrast, and the evidence that IGF is a promoter for NIS. Ultimately, if the expression of iodine can be shown to be a component of radiographic contrast between healthy and tumor breast tissue, this could be used to drive the development of new technology and techniques for use in the detection and treatment of breast cancer. The proof of this hypothesis could thus have a substantial impact in the fight against breast cancer.

R.B. 02-05-2013 03:48 PM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
http://iodine4health.com/research/ca...ast_cancer.pdf

"Hypothesis: Iodine, selenium and the development of breast cancer"


"Recent work with animal systems seems to support an antitumor e€ect for iodine. In dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary carcinoma in rats, iodine supplementation has been shown to have a suppressive e€ect on the development of this disease [32]. This suppressive activity was enhanced when iodine treatment was combined with progesterone (medroxy-progesterone acetate) [33]. The suppressed tumors were found to have a signi®cantly higher mean iodine content than nonsuppressed tumors, with uptake apparently enhanced by progesterone [33]. The enhancement of iodine uptake by progesterone has been observed in other hormone-dependent tissues including the uterus and oviduct [34]. We are presently initiating an analogous study in patients with metastatic breast cancer, in which subjects will take iodine supplements in combination with conventional progestin treatment [9]."

R.B. 02-05-2013 03:55 PM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
An abstract from 1976 !


DIETARY IODINE AND RISK OF BREAST, ENDOMETRIAL, AND OVARIAN CANCER
The Lancet, Volume 307, Issue 7965, Pages 890-891
BruceV. Stadel


Abstract

Geographic differences in the rates of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer appear to be inversely correlated with dietary iodine intake. Endocrinological considerations suggest that a low dietary iodine intake may produce a state of increased effective gonadotrophin stimulation, which in turn may produce a hyperœstrogenic state characterised by relatively high production of œstrone and œstradiol and a relatively low œstriol to œstrone plus œstradiol ratio. This altered endocrine state may increase the risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer. Increasing dietary iodine intake may reduce the risk of these cancers.

R.B. 02-05-2013 04:01 PM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
And one from 1970. Apparently there has not been the amount of new research into iodine in the last 30-40 years one might have expected: iodine / iodide cannot be patented so has limited income potential, which poses a significant question - how as a society do we fund important research into fundamental questions of biology which are unlikely to yield financial reward ?


For I in the paper below insert iodine /iodide



http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/1....20-5-ga6ad01a


Document details

Title
Iodine metabolism and breast cancer.
Authors
Eskin, B. A.
Journal
Transactions N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1970 Vol. 32 No. 8 pp. 911-947
Record Number
19710404644

Abstract

Experiments in virgin Sprague-Dawley rats show that I deficiency, particularly in the presence of sex steroids causes mammary hyperplasia. The mammary effects of dietary I lack are noticable after 6 wk. The I deficiency causes earlier onset of dimethylbenzanthracene-induced mammary tumours and prevents the therapeutic effect of oestrogen on carcinogenesis. In mammary dysplasias caused by I lack, the uptake of I by mammary tissue increases and the DNA and RNA contents increase. Thyroid stimulating hormone seems to be involved in control of I metabolism directly at the mammary level. I replacement prevents mammary dysplasias or once established the dysplasia is improved by chronic I therapy. In man, demographic studies indicate a correlation between areas of increased breast cancer and areas with endemic goitre. Clinical studies using mammography and thermography show that carcino-matous breast lesions can be improved with adequate thyroid or I treatment but that oestrogen treatment may have an adverse effect. GSK.

R.B. 02-05-2013 04:06 PM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
Full article abstract below PDF free http://iodine4health.com/research/ca...ast_cancer.pdf which includes this thought provoking statement


"In estradiol-treated rats, iodine deficiency has been shown to lead to pathological changes similar to those seen in benign breast disease ± cystic changes, periductal fibrosis and lobular hyperplasia [19, 20]. Conversely, dietary iodine reintroduction has been shown to reverse these pathological changes [20]. Thus, iodine deficiency appears to enhance mammary- tissue sensitivity to estrogen. In humans, several
studies have shown that iodine-containing desiccated thyroid [21] or thyroxine (T4) [22, 23] were e€effective in reducing mastalgia as well as other symptoms of benign breast disease [21, 22]. Iodine supplementation has also been examined in women with this disease.
One of the first studies, by Vishnyakova and Muravieva [24], reported a beneficial e€ffect in 71.7% of patients. More recently a large clinical trial was conducted which found that iodine supplementation significantly reduced the prevalence of breast cysts, fibrous tissue plaques and breast pain [25] ± thus demonstrating that this precursor disease may be treatable through dietary modifications. Further clinical studies are now being conducted to confirm these observations."


Seaweed Prevents Breast Cancer?

Hiroomi Funahashi1,*,
Tsuneo Imai1,
Takahiro Mase1,
Masanori Sekiya1,
Kazuki Yokoi1,
Hiromichi Hayashi1,
Arihiro Shibata1,
Takako Hayashi1,
Mikiko Nishikawa1,
Namiko Suda1,
Yatsuka Hibi1,
Yutaka Mizuno1,
Kyosuke Tsukamura1,
Akemi Hayakawa2,
Seiichi Tanuma3

Article first published online: 22 AUG 2005


DOI: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2001.tb01119.x

Keywords:

Breast cancer;
Chemoprevention;
Mekabu (seaweed);
Apoptosis

To investigate the chemopreventive effects of seaweed on breast cancer, we have been studying the relationship between iodine and breast cancer. We found earlier that the seaweed, wakame, showed a suppressive effect on the proliferation of DMBA (dimethylbenz(a)anthracene)-induced rat mammary tumors, possibly via apoptosis induction. In the present study, powdered mekabu was placed in distilled water, and left to stand for 24 h at 4°C. The filtered supernatant was used as mekabu solution. It showed an extremely strong suppressive effect on rat mammary carcinogenesis when used in daily drinking water, without toxicity. In vitro, mekabu solution strongly induced apoptosis in 3 kinds of human breast cancer cells. These effects were stronger than those of a chemothera-peutic agent widely used to treat human breast cancer. Furthermore, no apoptosis induction was observed in normal human mammary cells. In Japan, mekabu is widely consumed as a safe, inexpensive food. Our results suggest that mekabu has potential for chemoprevention of human breast

R.B. 02-05-2013 04:22 PM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
Commentary
The thyroid, iodine and breast cancer
Peter PA Smyth
Endocrine laboratory, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, and Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University
College Dublin, Ireland
Correspondence: Peter PA Smyth (e-mail: ppa.smyth@ucd.ie)
Published: 29 July 2003
Breast Cancer Res 2003, 5:235-238 (DOI 10.1186/bcr638)
© 2003 BioMed Central Ltd (Print ISSN 1465-5411; Online ISSN 1465-542X)

http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/bcr638.pdf

Abstract
A renewal of the search for a link between breast cancer and thyroid disease has once again demonstrated an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with breast cancer.
This is the most recent of many studies showing an association between a variety of thyroid disorders and breast cancer. Such an association is not surprising as both diseases are female predominant with a similar postmenopausal peak incidence. The significance of the presence of thyroid autoantibodies, particularly thyroid peroxidase antibodies, in serum from patients with breast cancer is unknown, but it has been suggested that antibody positivity is associated with better prognosis. One area in which thyroid and breast functions overlap is in the uptake and utilization of dietary iodide. Experimental findings showing the ability of iodine or iodine-rich seaweed to inhibit breast tumour development is supported by the relatively low rate of breast cancer in Japanese women who consume a diet containing iodine-rich seaweed. However, there is as yet no direct evidence that iodine, iodinated compounds, or a combination of iodine and selenium is the antimammary carcinogenic element in the Japanese diet. It remains to be resolved whether the perceived breast cancer–thyroid disease relationship is thyroid or iodine related or, in the case of thyroid autoantibodies, is the consequence of an immune response to the carcinoma. Is this response breast specific and does it relate to iodine status? These and many other questions await resolution before a definitive role in the natural history of breast carcinoma can be assigned to the thyroid.

R.B. 10-11-2013 01:11 PM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
I have recently attended a governmental seminar on school food, to which I have made a submission highlighting the need for dietary guidance on iodine and vitamin D, and hence the posts here and on the vitamin D thread.

Today's adolescent females will one day be a future generation of breast cancer cases.

The frightening level of deficiency observed has potential likely medical consequences in terms of them being at greater risk for a range of conditions including arguably breast cancer, fibrosis and mastalga, as well as a range of developmental and future reproductive conditions, which is a disaster for the individual and has wider societal implications in terms of the increasing pressures on healthcare generally.

The sad reality is that these risk are entirely and inexpensively preventable through education as to dietary needs, food sources rich in iodine (not many viz only marine products and seaweed) and or the obligatory inclusion of iodine rich food in school food, for example fortified bread




http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/226988.php
68% of 14-15 year old girls in UK iodine deficient - health risk for them and their future offspring


The Lancet, Volume 377, Issue 9782, Pages 2007 - 2012, 11 June 2011
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60693-4

Iodine status of UK schoolgirls: a cross-sectional survey.

Department of Endocrinology, Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust, London, UK.

Vanderpump MP, Lazarus JH, Smyth PP, Laurberg P, Holder RL, Boelaert K, Franklyn JA, British Thyroid Association UK Iodine Survey Group

Lancet. 2011;377(9782):2007.

BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. It is defined by WHO as mild if the population median urinary iodine excretion is 50-99μg/L, moderate if 20-49μg/L, and severe if less than 20μg/L. No contemporary data are available for the UK, which has no programme of food or salt iodination. We aimed to assess the current iodine status of the UK population.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey, we systematically assessed iodine status in schoolgirls aged 14-15 years attending secondary school in nine UK centres. Urinary iodine concentrations and tap water iodine concentrations were measured in June-July, 2009, and November-December, 2009. Ethnic origin, postcode, and a validated diet questionnaire assessing sources of iodine were recorded.
FINDINGS: 810 participants provided 737 urine samples. Data for dietary habits and iodine status were available for 664 participants. Median urinary iodine excretion was 80·1μg/L (IQR 56·9-109·0). Urinary iodine measurements indicative of mild iodine deficiency were present in 51% (n=379) of participants, moderate deficiency in 16% (n=120), and severe deficiency in 1% (n=8). Prevalence of iodine deficiency was highest in Belfast (85%, n=135). Tap water iodine concentrations were low or undetectable and were not positively associated with urinary iodine concentrations. Multivariable general linear model analysis confirmed independent associations between low urinary iodine excretion and sampling in summer (p<0·0001), UK geographical location (p<0·0001), low intake of milk (p=0·03), and high intake of eggs (p=0·02).
INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that the UK is iodine deficient. Since developing fetuses are the most susceptible to adverse effects of iodine deficiency and even mild perturbations of maternal and fetal thyroid function have an effect on neurodevelopment, these findings are of potential major public health importance. This study has drawn attention to an urgent need for a comprehensive investigation of UK iodine status and implementation of evidence-based recommendations for iodine supplementation.
FUNDING: Clinical Endocrinology Trust.
AD

mark.vanderpump@nhs.net
PMID
21640375

R.B. 10-11-2013 02:02 PM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
A question that has been bothering me for a while is does chlorine in forms other than perchlorate block iodine uptake and or thyroid function.

This paper which I found after several hours searching (in total) suggests it might well do so.

Mechanistic Aspects of Ingested Chlorine Dioxide on Thyroid Function: Impact of Oxidants on Iodide Metabolism

Environmental Health Perspectives
Vol. 69, pp. 249-255, 1986

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1474311/

"Toxicological studies dealing with recent findings of health effects of drinking water disinfectants are
reviewed. Experiments with monkeys and rodents indicate that the biological activity of ingested disinfectants is expressed via their chemical interaction with the mucosal epithelia, secretory products, and nutritional contents of the alimentary tract. Evidence exists that a principal partner of this redox interaction is the iodide of nutritional origin that is ubiquitous in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus the observation that subchronic exposure to chlorine dioxide (CI02) in drinking water decreases serum thyroxine levels in mammalian species can be best explained with changes produced in the chemical form of the bioavailable iodide. Ongoing and previously reported mechanistic studies indicate that oxidizing agents such as chlorine-based disinfectants oxidize the basal iodide content of the gastrointestinal tract. The resulting reactive iodine species readily attaches to organic matter by covalent bonding. Evidence suggests that the extent to which such iodinated organics are formed is proportional to the magnitude of the electromotive force and stoichiometry of the redox couple between iodide and the disinfectant. Because the extent of thyroid uptake of the bioavailable iodide does not decrease during C102 ingestion, it seems that C102 does not cause iodide deficiency of sufficient magnitude to account for the decrease in hormonogenesis. Absorption of one or more of iodinated molecules, e.g., nutrients, hormones, or cellular constituents of the alimentary tract having thyromimetic or thyroid inhibitory properties, is a better hypothesis for the effects seen."


They confirm that "The most surprising observation in our studies was that chlorine dioxide is a relatively potent thyroid inhibitor, showing clear physiologic effects at about 9 mg/kg/day dose in 11 of 13 animals studied (1)."


A WHO document suggest chlorinated water contains about 1 mg per litre but it seems the allowable amount is up to 15mg per kg of body weight per day - so the amount in your water would depend on your local provider water quality etc.

This is scary in its potential implication where significant amounts of chlorine dioxide are present in water mainly because we know so many are already low in iodine, because it is them who are generally affected by and at significant risk from iodine blockers in their generality.

Blockers also include brassicas, many soy products, and something found in water in varying concentration called perchlorate, fluoride and bromide. Fluoride is put in water as well as some toothpaste, and in the USA bromide is it seems is often put in bread and in some popular drinks.

Both flouride and bromide are found in seawater and so marine organisms, which again points to the problem at heart being lack of iodine.

The paper suggests that what ever is causing the iodine blocking is likely to be something made in the mouth or upper intestinal tract by reaction with the chlorine, rather than the chlorine alone itself. Iodine has important roles in the mucal tissues including the salivary duct. What other effects these alterations of natural processes have we do not know.

Some have asked why we do not use iodine to 'purify' water they suggest solving two problems at once. Apparently it was tried in a prison with no harm to the population, I presume a very long time ago !

'lizbeth 10-11-2013 02:24 PM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
R.B.

Are you reading IODINE, Why you need it, Why you can't live without it by David Brownstein, MD?

On page 45 of the 4th edition:

Quote:

Diets that cause Iodine Deficiency

1. Diets without ocean fish or sea vegetables
2. Inadequate use of iodized salt including low sodium diets
3. Diets high in the consumption of bakery products (e.g. breads, pastas) which contain bromide
4. Vegan and vegetarian diets
Quote:

The most significant change in the iodine status of recent time occurred with the changing of the food industry. In the 1960's, iodine was added to the commercial baking industry as a dough conditioner. This single addition to baked goods significantly increased the iodine intake of the U.S. populations, as one slice of bread contained the RDA for iodine of 150ug.13 Article from the NIH were published which questioned the safety of using iodine in baking products. Some researchers felt that this level of iodine in baking products would cause a malfunctioning of the thyroid gland.

Twenty years later, bromine replaced iodine in the baking industry. Bromine is a halide (as is iodine, fluoride, and chloride). All halides compete with one another for absorption and receptor binding in the body. Bromine interferes with iodine utilization in the thyroid as wells as wherever else iodine would concentrate in the body.14


Due to the interference of iodine binding in the body, bromine is a known “goitrogen” – it promotes the formation of goiter in the body. Bromine is a toxic substance that has no therapeutic use is our bodies. Bromine also can bind to the iodine receptors in the breast and is a known carcinogen to the breast. On the other hand, iodine has anticarcinogenic properties. . .

Quote:

Perchlorate is a substance that is found in nature and is a man-made substance. Perchlorate is manufactured for rocker fuel and many industrial uses. Perchlorate contains one atom of chlorine and four atoms of oxygen. Chlorine is part of the halide family (iodine, bromine and chlorine). Excess perchlorate levels can displace iodine in the body and damage the transport of iodine into the cells.

It is an interesting book.

'lizbeth 10-11-2013 02:27 PM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
Honestly, if I was a kid (and since I never grew up) . . .


ocean fish, sea vegetables, and just ordinary vegetables are a tough sell.

Bread and Pizza dough conditioned with iodine might be the most effective way to get kids to eat it (and they won't know its better for them . . . shhh . . .

R.B. 10-11-2013 02:37 PM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
Hi 'Lizabeth

Hi I have got and read one of his books - it was a while ago - it is a fascinating and extremely thought provoking book !!! - and looking on my bookshelf it is not there which reminds me I think I lent it to someone; which I must stop doing because they sometimes do not come back )-: and then are not there when I need them.

On a personal basis I agree with you - flour supplementation would be good (what used to be done), of course providing the option of iodine free flour for the few who may be harmed by iodine; those with damaged thyroids I understand - flour is probably better than bread - as you say a great way to include the pizza generation (-: LOL - the health rewards would seem to far outweigh the risks.

Perchlorate is also found in some fertilisers.

I am not sure that bromide has no uses in the body; there is much more bromine than iodine at least some marine foods (it is a while since I looked at bromine) - it is unlike nature not to have uses for things that are relatively common - we just do not yet know what that role is: and is bromide a competitor rather than a blocker because it is likely to be smaller than iodine so a less ideal fit all of which comes back to having adequate iodine . . . and according to a researcher the importer is very very old and fairly unsophisticated and just works on size on that basis I surmise it is not the smaller halogens (chlorine and fluorine) that are directly a problem but when they are attached to other things eg perchlorate is chlorine attached to 4 oxygen (as pointed out in the abstract). . . which is why I was wondering if chlorine in other forms more common forms is a blocker (see above) . . . and viz chloride in salt and if so how . . . it is all so complex . . . I had seen lots of suggestions chlorine in the generality was a problem but not a paper or medical report so was hesitant to accept it as fact; as sometime things that are perceived and regularly reported to be fact are not as in lots of polyunsaturated Omega 6 rich oil being very good for you !

Many thanks for the abstract and your interest. (-:

PS selenium is fundamental to iodine and antioxidant function and appears to help protect against damage during iodine processing by the body

'lizbeth 10-11-2013 02:59 PM

Re: Iodine deficiency ! - falling intakes - goitregens - competition bromine and fluo
 
Just over here taking my Kelp and Vitamin D . . .

eating Sushi, and seaweed salad and wild caught salmon

cabbage, broccoli, kale, spinach

chocolate, coffee & red wine

Hopefully, I haven't missed anything :)


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